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Entries / Monarchical Organizations

Monarchical Organizations

Categories / Social Life/Political Parties and Organizations

MONARCHICAL ORGANISATIONS. The strengthening of liberal and radical opposition movements against absolutism provoked the appearance of monarchical organisations. In 1881, shortly after the assassination of Alexander II on 1 March, the secret society Holy (Sacred) Retinue, that mainly united representatives of court circles, was established in St. Petersburg. The protection of the monarch from terrorist attacks was proclaimed the main objective of the society (M.E.Saltykov-Shchedrin called this organisation the Society of Anxious Idlers). Attempts of the retinue to take on functions of the political police encountered the resistance of power structures, and shortly after the coronation of Emperor Alexander III (1883) this organisation ceased to exist. At the beginning of October 1900 the Russian Assembly was established in St. Petersburg, which was a right-wing society of high officials, writers and publicists. The assembly was headed by Prince D.P. Golitsyn, among its participants were Prince M.N. Volkonsky, A.S. Suvorin, N.A. Engelgardt, V.M. Purishkevich, and S.N. Syromyatnikov. In the early November of 1905 the Union of Russian People, headed by A. I. Dubrovin, Purishkevich (until March 1908) and N. E. Markov (until 1910), was formed in St. Petersburg, which existed for the course of the revolution. At the beginning of March 1908, as a consequence of the split of the Union of Russian People, the Russian National Union of the Archangel Michael, whose leaders included Purishkevich, I.I. Baranov, S.A. Volodimerov, I. Vostorgov, P.P. Surin, G.A. Shechkov, was formed. In the spring - summer of 1908 the All-Russian National Union was organised in St. Petersburg (Chairman S.V. Rukhlov, Comrade (Assistant) of the Chairman Prince A.P. Urusov, among its activists were A.P. Nikolsky, M.O. Menshikov, I.S. Durnovo, V.V. Shulgin, P.N. Krupensky and Count V.A. Bobrinsky). Numerous attempts of monarchical organisations to consolidate into a united political party were made in the 1910s, but failed. After the February Revolution of 1917, all monarchical organisations were disbanded.

References: Степанов С. А. Черная сотня в России (1905-1914 гг.). М., 1992; Программы политических партий России, конец XIX - нач. ХХ вв. М., 1995; Кирьянов Ю. И. Правые партии в России, 1911-1917. М., 2001.

A. V. Repnikov.

Alexander III, Emperor
Baranov Ivan Ivanovich
Bobrinsky Vladimir Alexeevich
Dubrovin Alexander Ivanovich
Durnovo I.S.
Engelgardt Nikolay Alexandrovich
Golitsyn Dmitry Petrovich
Krupensky Pavel Nikolaevich
Markov 2-nd Nikolay Evgenievich
Menshikov Mikhail Osipovich
Nikolsky Alexander Petrovich
Purishkevich Vladimir Mitrofanovich
Rukhlov Sergey Vasilievich
Saltykov-Shchedrin (real name Saltykov) Mikhail Evgrafovich
Shechkov G.A.
Shulgin Vasily Vitalievich
Surin P.P.
Suvorin Alexey Sergeevich
Syromyatnikov Sergey Nikolaevich
Urusov Alexander Petrovich
Volkonsky Mikhail Nikolaevich, Duke
Volodimerov S.A.
Vostorgov Ioann Ioannovich

Степанов С.А. Черная сотня в России (1905 - 1914 гг.). М., 1992
Программы политических партий России, конец XIX - нач. ХХ вв. М., 1995
Кирьянов Ю. И. Правые партии в России, 1911-1917. М., 2001

The subject Index
First of March, 1881
The Russian Assembly , political organization
Revolution of 1905-07
Union of Archangel Michael, the political organization
February Revolution of 1917