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Entries / Tsarskoe Selo, palace and park ensemble

Tsarskoe Selo, palace and park ensemble


Categories / City Topography/Green Areas/Parks
Categories / Architecture/Architectural Monuments/Architectural Ensembles
Categories / Tsarskoe Selo and town of Pushkin. The digital chronological reference book/Monuments of history and culture

TSARSKOE SELO (Pushkin town), a monument of town-planning and a palace and park ensemble dating from the 18th to the beginning of the 20th century. The core of the ensemble is the estate of Empress Catherine I Sarskaya Myza (founded in 1710). To the north of the Catherine Palace, is the Church of the Holy Sign (1734-46, architects M.Y. Blank, M.G. Zemtsov). In 1752-53, the ensemble of "cavaliers' houses" (4, 6, 10, 12 Sadovaya Street; architect S.I. Chevakinsky) was developed along the north fence of the Catherine Park and Lower Stables (building 18, 20; 1756-62, architects F. Rastrelli, Chevakinsky), Hothouses (building 14; 1750s, architect Rastrelli; reconstructed in 1820-28 by architect V.P. Stasov) and the so-called "stables of the horses on duty" (building 8; 1822-24, architect Stasov) were adjoined to the ensemble. In the middle of the 18th century, the development of the territory continued along Litseisky Lane (building 5 - choristers' wing, 1752-53) and Srednaya Street (building 1 and 3 - houses of the Palace Administration, 1744) - all designed by Chevakinsky. The formation of the palace settlement was interrupted in 1783, when the place for the new town Sofia was chosen to the south-east of the Catherine Park; its plan (architect C. Cameron) was to become a model for all major provincial towns of the Russian Empire. But the project was not implemented to the full and in 1808 the town was abolished (the Holy Wisdom Cathedral and Kazanskoe Cemetery have preserved); later, the territory was built up with quarters and barracks where the Life Guard Hussar Regiment, Riflemen Regiment, Cuirassier Regiment and Artillery School were quartered. The planning of Tsarskoe Selo features regular lay-out formed by perpendicular streets. The centre is the rectangular Sobornaya Square (1808, architect V.I. Hastie) with facades of the Municipal Government and Fire Department (28, 32 Leontyevskaya Street; 1821, architects V.I. Hastie, V.P. Stasov) and Gostiny dvor (25 Moskovskaya Street; 1863-66, architect N.S. Nikitin). St. Catherine's Cathedral (1835-40, architect K.A. Ton) was demolished in 1939. Until the early 20th century, the development was confined to Bulvarnaya Street (today Oktyabrsky Boulevard). The considerable part of Tsarskoe Selo is occupied with the Catherine Park, Alexander Park, Babolovsky Park, Separate Park with Colonists' Pond (along Pavlovskoe Freeway, laid out in 1824-25, architect A.A. Menelas; 1839-47, masters F.F. Lyamin, I.F. Piper; partially replanned in the mid-19th century by architect A.F. Vidov and in the early 20 century by architect S.A. Danini), and Lyceum Garden (1819, architect A.A. Menelas, replanned in 1849, architect D.E. Efimov) with the monument to Alexander Pushkin (1900, sculptor R.P. Bach), the summer residence of M.V. Kochubey (Spare, or Vladimirsky Palace) at 22 Sadovaya Street (1817-18, architect Stasov); the summer residence of Z.I. Yusupova (10-12 Pavlovskoe Freeway; 1856-59, architect I.A. Monighetti), the summer residence of Grand Prince Boris Vladimirovich (11 Moskovskoe Freeway; 1896-97, Maple English firm; 1899, architect A.I. von Gogen). In the early 20th century, in the north of Tsarskoe Selo (Akademichesky Avenue) an ensemble was created that included Feodorovsky Settlement; the Imperial garages (1906-07, architect S.A. Danini, 1913-15, architect A.K. Minyaev); quarters of His Imperial Majesty Escort (1916, architect V.N. Maximov); Tsar's Pavilion of the railway station (1912, architect V.A. Pokrovsky). During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45, the ensemble of Tsarskoe Selo suffered severe damage. In the course of post-war restoration work, main constituents and focuses of pre-revolutionary architecture have been preserved.

References: Ласточкин С. Я., Рубежанский Ю. Ф. Царское Село - резиденция российских монархов: Архит. и воен.-ист. очерк. 2-е изд., доп. и перераб. СПб., 2000.

Y. M. Piryutko.

Persons
Blank Ivan (Jogann)Yakovlevich
Cameron Charles
Catherine I, Empress
Chevakinsky Savva Ivanovich
Rastrelli Francesco de
Stasov Vasily Petrovich
Zemtsov Mikhail Grigorievich

Addresses
Akademichesky Avenue/Pushkin, town
Leontievskaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 32
Leontievskaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 28
Litseisky Lane/Pushkin, town, house 5
Moskovskaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 25
Moskovskoe Freeway/Pushkin, town, house 11
Oktyabrsky Boulevard/Pushkin, town
Pavlovskoe Freeway/Pushkin, town
Pavlovskoe Freeway/Pushkin, town, house 10
Pavlovskoe Freeway/Pushkin, town, house 12
Pushkin, town
Sadovaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 22
Sadovaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 6
Sadovaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 4
Sadovaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 18
Sadovaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 14
Sadovaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 12
Sadovaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 8
Sadovaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 20
Sadovaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 10
Srednaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 3
Srednaya Street/Pushkin, town, house 1

Bibliographies
Ласточкин С. Я., Рубежанский Ю. Ф. Царское Село - резиденция российских монархов: Архит. и воен.-ист. очерк. СПб., 2000

The subject Index
Catherine Palace (Town of Pushkin)
St. Catherine’s Cathedral in Tsarskoe Selo
Vladimirsky Palace
Feodorovsky Settlement (Pushkin Town)

Chronograph
1717
1755
1959