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Entries / Building Materials (entry)

Building Materials (entry)

Categories / Architecture/Construction Materials and Industry, Architectural Monuments Restoration

BUILDING MATERIALS. The production of building materials in St. Petersburg started soon after the foundation of the city. In 1705, brick factories already functioned along the Neva River in the area of the Ivanovsky rapids. Near the Syas, Tosna and Pudost rivers, quicklime was extracted; in 1720, over 48,500 barrels with a 20-pood capacity were prepared (the pood was an old Russian measurement equivalent to 16.38 kg). Until the mid 1730s, tile, glass and cement were delivered from abroad; valuable stones came from the Baltic region and the Volga (see also Stone, Natural). Over 7,600 people were involved in the production and transportation of building materials (80% of the workers were subjects of the Office of City Affairs). In the middle of the 18th century, the annual output of brick at official factories exceeded ten million pieces; production of cement and lime-based astringents was also high. Several construction materials and production methods were awarded "public praise" in St. Petersburg's first industrial exhibition, in 1869. By the beginning of the 20th century, building materials were made by joint-stock companies belonging to A.D. Blagodarev, which constructed stone buildings (founded in 1881); by alabaster factories belonging to K.F. Gerike and A.M. Grigoryev; and by trading companies, such as Parviainen and Co. (founded in 1890) and the Northern Glass-Industrial Society (founded in 1896); by cement factories, such as The Star Joint-Stock Company, which produced artificial building materials (founded in 1848), and The Builder's Association (founded in 1897); and by pottering factories belonging to E.S. Kurochkina (founded in 1878). At the International Construction Exhibition of 1908 on Kamenny Island, the Glukhoozersky Portland-Cement Association was honoured with "outstanding organisation in the cement industry"; the Heirs of Count Shuvalov Company was honoured for its "perfect tin roofing". In 1930, the first specialized department for Construction Material and Technology was connected to the Leningrad Institute of Railway Transport Engineers (the first head was Professor V.V. Evald). In 1931, Professor V.P. Petrov began to carry out research on compacted concrete and centrifuged concrete, special concrete for railway sleeping cars, and aerodrome covers. In the 1930s, cement production was reorganised in Leningrad; in the 1960s, mass output of wall-material for large-panel construction began. By 2003, about 400 industrial factories (including the joint-stock companies Barricade, Parkon, and Building Detail) were involved in the production of building materials. In 2000, the volume of production was 3.2 billion roubles, making up 2.5% of the total volume of industrial production in St. Petersburg.

A. F. Veksler.

Blagodarev Apollinary Denisovich
Evald Viktor Vladimirovi
Gerike Karl Fridrichovich
Grigoryev Alexey Mikhailovich
Kurochkina Ekaterina Semenovna
Petrov Viktor Pavlovich
Shuvalov Ivan Ivanovich, Count

The subject Index
Natural stone