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Entries / Gymnasia (entry)

Gymnasia (entry)


Categories / Science. Education/Educational Institutions

GYMNASIA, institutions of intermediate general education. In pre-revolutionary Russia they were mainly established with the purpose of training pupils for university and service in state institutions. The Academic Gymnasium was the first to be opened in St. Petersburg (1726-1805). The four-year Main Gymnasium for people of all classes was opened according to the Regulations for Educational Institutions in 1804. In 1805 in was located at 27/12 Bolshaya Meshchanskaya Street. On its basic structure, the Main People's School with a multi-disciplinary programme was established in 1786. The curator of the St. Petersburg Educational District S. S. Uvarov transformed it into the first ever Russian Classical Gymnasium in 1811. The apprenticeship lasted seven years. It was prolonged up to eight years in 1818. The gymnasium trained pupils for admission to university. The curriculum included Russian, Latin, Greek and divine law. Philosophy, political economy, commerce, aesthetics were excluded from the new programme. The course on natural sciences was similarly reduced. Uvarov's plan was approved for all Russian gymnasia in 1819. Later the plan laid the foundation of the Regulations of 1828 introducing a seven-year educational plan for gymnasia with subjects including divine law, Russian literature, Latin and contemporary European languages, mathematics, geography, history, physics, technical drawing and drawing. Gymnasia became educational institutions predominantly for the nobility. In 1817, the certificate of the St. Petersburg Main Gymnasium was equated with the University certificate for official promotion. In 1822, the St. Petersburg Main Gymnasium was divided into the Higher College and the usual Gymnasium with pedagogical bias. The Higher College was established on the basis of the boarding school with the purpose of training the officials for the state service. The Higher College was located on Bolshaya Meshchanskaya Street. The Gymnasium with a pedagogical bias was later united with the Teachers' Institute and transferred to the building of the former College of St. Panteleimon in 1823 (23 Gagarinskaya Street). In 1829, 312 people studied at the Main Gymnasium. By 1830, there were already three gymnasia in St. Petersburg, which had been granted a hierarchical status: the Noble Boarding School at the University established in 1817 was transformed into the First Gymnasium, located at 27 Zvenigorodskaya Street; the Higher College was transformed into the Second Gymnasium, at 27 Kazanskaya Street; while the New Main Gymnasium was transformed into the Third Gymnasium (12 Solyanoy Lane). The First Gymnasium remained a boarding school for the nobility until 1858. Gymnasia functioned according to the Regulations of 1828, by which all the gymnasia were divided into two groups: the gymnasia for nobility and classical gymnasia. The Fourth Larin Gymnasium was opened in 1836 with the contribution of merchant P. D. Larin at 15 Sixth Line of Vasilievsky Island. The Fifth Gymnasium was opened in 1845 at 73 Ekateringofsky Avenue (Rimsky-Korsakov Avenue). The Sixth Gymnasium was opened in 1862 at 5 Teatralnaya Street (today Zodchego Rossi Street). The Seventh Gymnasium was opened at 5 Twelfth Line of Vasilievsky Island. In 1849, the educational program in gymnasia was divided into general courses (training for the admission to the University) and special courses (training for the government service). Jurisprudence was studied instead of ancient languages in specialized classes. All the three St. Petersburg Cadet Corps were reorganized into the First Military Boarding School, the Second Military Boarding School and the Third Military Boarding School of general education in 1862. P. F. Lesgaft organised courses for teachers of physical education as part of the Second Military Boarding School in 1877. In 1882, military schools were again transformed into Cadet Corps. The Regulations of 1864 divided the gymnasia into classical gymnasia with ancient languages and real gymnasia with advanced courses of mathematics, natural sciences and contemporary European languages. The Regulations also introduced pro-gymnasia, which consisted of only the first four years of the normal course of study, which one would find at the standard gymnasia. According to the Regulations of 1871, all classical gymnasia adopted an eight year study program which was divided into seven courses, the final course requiring two years of study. Only the graduates of such gymnasia were allowed to enter the University. Latin and Greek involved 41% of the study hours. The Seventh Real Gymnasium was reorganized as the Real College. Another gymnasium was established at the Institute of History and Philology in 1870 (11 Universitetskaya Embankment). The Gymnasium of the Imperial Philanthropic Society was established in 1872 at 15 Kryukov Canal Embankment. The boys’ pro-gymnasium was established in the 1860s-70s and was also transformed into a standard gymnasium. As a result the following gymnasia appeared: in 1879, the Seventh Gymnasium (11 Kirillovskaya Street); in 1882, the Eighth Gymnasium (8 Ninth Line of Vasilievsky Island) and the Ninth Gymnasium later renamed the Peter the Great Gymnasium (37 Bolshoy Avenue of Petrogradskaya Side), 1883 - the Tenth Gymnasium (located at First Rota Izmailovskogo Polka Street, now 3-5 First Krasnoarmeiskaya); in 1899, the Eleventh Gymnasium (3 Vyborgskaya Street); in 1901, the Twelfth Gymnasium (68/40 Nevsky Prospect); in 1905, the District Gymnasium renamed the Thirteenth Gymnasium (in 1914 located at 3 Malaya Morskaya Street). Private gymnasia started to appear in the 1860s. The gymnasium of V. Y. Stoyunin, F. I. Wiedemann at 46 Ninth Line of Vasilievsky Island, and I. V. Tsinkalovsky’s gymnasium were among the first private gymnasia in St. Petersburg. They were opened on basis of classical schools in 1862. The school of Shapaev was transformed into a gymnasium in 1864. The school of K. I. May was transformed into a gymnasium in 1865. The school of Y. G. Gurevich was transformed into a gymnasium in 1869 (1 Ligovskaya Street). In 1875, the curriculum was changed to eight years of study. Gymnasia offering a full course of general education in six years appeared alongside those offering an eight year education program in 1903. The course of ancient languages was reduced in classical gymnasia in 1902. The new curriculum of gymnasia stressed the importance of education in natural sciences and was approved in 1914. In 1905, there were 15 state gymnasia, seven private boys’ gymnasia including three gymnasia at Lutheran churches and one gymnasium attached to St. Petersburg Reformist churches. In 1906, it became easier for the private schools to be granted the rights of state schools and they started rapidly growing. By 1917, the number of boys’ gymnasia had not changed and the number of private gymnasia reached 20. V. I. Vernadsky, N. M. Korkunov graduated from the First Gymnasium. The building at 7/11 Ivanovskaya Street (today Sotsialisticheskaya Street) was erected in 1820-23. It was enlarged in 1838-40 by architect N. L. Benois and in 1893-94 by architect V. A. Kosyakov. In 1914-16, a sports complex with the first ever Russian covered swimming pool was built at the gymnasium by architect L. P. Shishko. L. N. Maykov, V. A. Karatygin and P. A. Karatygin, I. F. Annensky, S. A. Zhebelev, B. L. Modzalevsky, A. A. Fridman, N. E. Lansere, A. A. Bryantsev, E. A. Mravinsky were among the pupils of the Second Gymnasium. V. Y. Stoyunin, D. I. Pisarev, V. P. Ostrogorsky, A. S. Famintsyn, I. A. Shlyapkin, D. S. Merezhkovsky, V. D. Nabokov, P. B. Struve, V. A. Oppel, F. Y. Levinson-Lessing, S. Y. Marshak graduated from the Third Gymnasium. The Department of Empress Maria's Establishments opened the first girls’ gymnasia in St. Petersburg at the end of the 1850s in accordance with the plan of N. A. Vyshnegradsky. They remained the day schools until 1862. According to the Regulations of 1862, they had seven compulsory forms and an eighth additional form. The curriculums were light in comparison with boys’ gymnasia and were similar to the curricula of other institutes for girls. Girls of all classes were accepted from the age of eight. Four girls’ gymnasia were opened in 1858: Vasileostrovskaya Gymnasium (6 Ninth Line of Vasilievsky Island), Kolomenskaya Gymnasium (16 Torgovaya Street), Mariinskaya Gymnasium (11 Chernyshev Lane, today Lomonosova Street) and Petrovskaya Gymnasium (24 Plutalova Street). Alexandrovskaya Gymnasium was opened in 1860 at 20 Gorokhovaya Street. Liteinaya Gymnasium was opened in 1864 at 15 Basseinaya Street (today Nekrasova Street). Rozhdestvenskaya Gymnasium was opened in 1868 at 1 Lafonskaya Street. Later it was renamed Princess E. M. Oldenburgskaya Gymnasium. Ekaterininskaya Gymnasium was opened at 29 Izmaylovsky Avenue in 1873. Pokrovskaya Gymnasium located at 77 Bolshoy Avenue of Vasilievsky Island remained the only girls gymnasium functioning up to 1917. In 1878, it was established on part of the college at Pokrovskaya Nurses’ Community founded in 1876. Private girls’ gymnasia were opened in St. Petersburg, based on first class colleges from the end of the 1870s. To begin with, one or two private gymnasia appeared a year. The gymnasium of Speshneva appeared in 1879 and was closed in 1883. The Gymnasium of Princess Obolenskaya was established in 1880 at 8 Baskov Lane. The Gymnasium of M. N. Stoyunina was opened in 1881 at 20 Kabinetskaya Street (formerly Pravdy Street). The Gymnasium of E. P. Shaffe was opened in 1882 at 16/17 Fifth Line of Vasilievsky Island. The Gymnasium of E. M. Gedde was opened at 83 Ekateringofsky Canal Embankment (Griboedov Canal Embankment) in 1883. Later it became the Gymnasium of A. F. Mushnikova. The Gymnasium of P. A. Makarova was also opened in 1883 at 1 Znamenskaya Street (Vosstaniya Street). The Gymnasium of E. N. Steblin-Kamenskaya was opened in 1884 at 51 Liteiny Avenue. The Gymnasium of L. S. Tagantseva was opened in 1885 at 27 Mokhovaya Street. The Gymnasium of A. P. Nikiforova was opened in 1889 at 142 Nevsky Prospect. The Gymnasium of M. A. Lokhvitskaya-Skalon with artistic classes was opened in 1897 at 27 Nikolaevskaya Street (Marata Street). Private schools started to grow rapidly from 1906. By 1917, there were 56 private girls’ gymnasia and 9 pro-gymnasia in St. Petersburg. The Gymnasium of G. Stoyunina using progressive teaching methods and an individual approach to pupils takes a particular place. In 1918, all the gymnasia were transformed into government working-class schools. From the end of the 1980s, schools with advanced courses in a number of subjects were renamed gymnasia as a result of educational reforms. There were 36 gymnasia in St. Petersburg in the 1993/94 academic year. There were 69 state gymnasia and 5 private gymnasia, in total 74 gymnasia with 55,400 pupils existed in St. Petersburg on 1 January, 2003.

References: Аничков Н. М. Историческая записка пятидесятилетия Третьей Санктпетербургской гимназии... СПб., 1873; Соловьев Д. Н. Пятидесятилетие С.-Петербургской первой гимназии, 1830-1878. СПб., 1880; Курганович А. В. Историческая записка 75-летия Петербургской второй гимназии: В 3 ч. СПб., 1880-1905; Пятидесятилетие С.-Петербургской Ларинской гимназии,1836-1886. СПб., 1886; Кусов Н. А. Двадцатипятилетие С.-Петербургской седьмой гимназии (бывш. Второй прогимназии), 1867-1892. СПб., 1893; Памятная книжка Гимназии при Императорском Спб. историко-филологическом институте, 1870 - XXV - 1895. СПб., 1895; Иванов К. А. Пятидесятилетие С.-Петербургской пятой гимназии, 1845-1895. СПб., 1896; Чевакинский А. И. Двадцатипятилетие С.-Петербургской десятой гимназии, 1871 г.-1896 г. СПб., 1897; Семидесятипятилетие гимназии Императорского Человеколюбивого общества, 1820-1895 г. СПб., 1898; Памятная книжка С.-Петербургской восьмой гимназии, преобразованной из V прогимназии, 1874-XXV-1899. СПб., 1900; Двадцатипятилетие Женской гимназии М. Н. Стоюниной, 1881-1906 гг. СПб., 1906; Скворцов И. В. Прошлое и настоящее с.-петербургских женских гимназий Ведомства учреждений императрицы Марии, 1858-1908. СПб., 1908; Буткевич К. Ф., Николаев Л. П. Историческая записка, изданная ко дню пятидесятилетия С.-Петербургской шестой гимназии (1862-1912). СПб., 1912.

Е. М. Balashov.

Persons
Annensky Innokenty Fedorovich
Benois Nikolay Leontievich
Bryantsev Alexander Alexandrovich
Famintsyn Andrey Sergeevich
Fridman Alexander Alexandrovich
Gedde E.M.
Gurevich Yakov Grigorievich
Karatygin Peter Andreevich
Karatygin Vasily Andreevich
Korkunov Nikolay Mikhailovich
Kosyakov Vladimir Antonovich
Lansere Nikolay Evgenievich
Larin P.D.
Lesgaft Peter Franzevich
Levinson-Lessing Franz Yulievich
Lokhvitskaya-Skalon Mirra Alexandrovna
Makarova P.A.
Maria Fedorovna, Empress
Marshak Samuil Yakovlevich
May Karl Ivanovich
Maykov Leonid Nikolaevich
Merezhkovsky Dmitry Sergeevich
Modzalevsky Boris Lvovich
Mravinsky Evgeny Alexandrovich
Mushnikova A.F.
Nabokov Vladimir Dmitrievich
Nikiforova A.P.
Obolenskaya Anna Alexandrovna, Duchess
Oldenburgskaya Evgenia Maximilianovna, Princess
Oppel Vladimir Andreevich
Ostrogorsky Viktor Petrovich
Peter I, Emperor
Pisarev Dmitry Ivanovich
Shaffe E.P.
Shapaev
Shishko Lev Petrovich
Shlyapkin Ilya Alexandrovich
Speshneva
Steblin-Kamenskaya E.N.
Stoyunin Vladimir Yakovlevich
Stoyunina Maria Nikolaevna
Struve Peter Berngardovich
Tagantseva L.S.
Tsinkalovsky I.V.
Uvarov Sergey Semenovich
Vernadsky Vladimir Ivanovich
Vyshnegradsky Alexander Ivanovich
Vyshnegradsky Nikolay Alexeevich
Wiedemann Ferdinand Ivanovich
Zhebelev Sergey Alexandrovich

Addresses
1st Krasnoarmeiskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 3
1st Krasnoarmeiskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 5
5th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 16/17
9th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 8
9th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 46
9th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 6
12th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 5
16th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 15
Baskov Lane/Saint Petersburg, city, house 8
Bolshoy Ave of Petrograskaya Storona/Saint Petersburg, city, house 37
Bolshoy Ave of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 77
Gagarinskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 23
Gorokhovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 20
Griboedova Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 83
Izmailovsky Avenue/Saint Petersburg, city, house 29
Kazanskaya Street/Saint Petersburg, city, house 27
Kazanskaya Street/Saint Petersburg, city, house 27/12
Kirillovskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 11
Kryukova Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 15
Ligovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 1
Liteiny Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 51
Lomonosova St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 11
Malaya Moskovskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 3
Marata St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 27
Mokhovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 27
Nekrasova St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 15
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 142
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 68/40
Plutalova St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 24
Pravdy St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 20
Proletarskoy Diktatury St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 1
Rimsky-Korsakov Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 73
Solyanoy Lane/Saint Petersburg, city, house 12
Sotsialisticheskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 7/11
Soyuza Pechatnikov St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 16
Universitetskaya Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 11
Vosstaniya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 1
Vyborgskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 3
Zodchego Rossi Street/Saint Petersburg, city, house 5
Zvenigorodskaya Street/Saint Petersburg, city, house 27

Bibliographies
Соловьев Д. Н. Пятидесятилетие С.-Петербургской первой гимназии, 1830-1878. СПб., 1880
Курганович А. В. Историческая записка 75-летия Петербургской второй гимназии: В 3 ч. СПб., 1880-1905
Пятидесятилетие С.-Петербургской Ларинской гимназии,1836-1886. СПб., 1886
Буткевич К. Ф., Николаев Л. П. Историческая записка, изданная ко дню пятидесятилетия С.-Петербургской шестой гимназии (1862-1912). СПб., 1912
Памятная книжка С.-Петербургской восьмой гимназии, преобразованной из V прогимназии, 1874-XXV-1899. СПб., 1900
Двадцатипятилетие Женской гимназии М. Н. Стоюниной, 1881-1906 гг. СПб., 1906
Скворцов И. В. Прошлое и настоящее с.-петербургских женских гимназий Ведомства учреждений императрицы Марии, 1858-1908. СПб., 1908
Памятная книжка Гимназии при Императорском Спб историко-филологическом институте, 1870-XXV-1895. СПб., 1895
Семидесятипятилетие гимназии Императорского Человеколюбивого общества, 1820-1895 г. СПб., 1898
Чевакинский А. И. Двадцатипятилетие С.-Петербургской десятой гимназии, 1871 г. -1896 г. СПб., 1897
Кусов Н. А. Двадцатипятилетие С.-Петербургской седьмой гимназии (бывш. Второй прогимназии), 1867-1892. СПб., 1893
Иванов К. А. Пятидесятилетие С.-Петербургской пятой гимназии, 1845-1895. СПб., 1896
Аничков Н. М. Историческая записка пятидесятилетия Третьей Санктпетербургской гимназии... СПб., 1873

The subject Index
Academic Gymnasium
May's Gymnasium

Chronograph
1805
1823
1830
1836