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Entries / Nevsky Prospect

Nevsky Prospect


Categories / City Topography/Urban Network/Avenues

NEVSKY PROSPECT known as Bolshaya Pershpektivnaya Road or Bolshaya Pershpektiva until 1738, Nevskaya Prospektivaya Street or Nevskaya Perspektiva in 1738-1780s, and 25 October Avenue in 1918-44 so named in memory of the October Revolution of 1917. Four and a half kilometres long, the avenue is the main artery of St. Petersburg running between Admiralteisky Avenue and Alexander Nevsky Square and crossing the Moika River (Narodny Bridge), Griboedova Canal (Kazansky Bridge), and Fontanka River (Anichkov Bridge). Roads laid from the Main Admiralty and Alexander Nevsky Monastery to the old Novgorodsky Highway in 1710s were joined together as a single highway turning a little near the present-day Vosstaniya Square in 1760s. The stretch from the monastery to Vosstaniya Square was known as Staro-Nevsky Avenue from old times. The road had become the main entrance to St. Petersburg by 1720. It was planted along with birches and partly cobbled in 1721-23. Oil lamps were installed at the same time. The brick built Mytny Dvor (or Gostiny Dvor) was built by architects G. I. Mattarnovi and N. F. Gerbel near building 15 in 1716-20 but was burnt down in 1736. The avenue was mainly built up no farther than Fontanka River - the city boundary - in the early-to-mid 18th century. St. Peter"s Lutheran Church was built at number 22-24 in 1728-30 and completely rebuilt in 1833-38. The Holy Virgin Nativity Church constructed on the other side of the avenue in 1733-37 was demolished during the construction of Kazan Cathedral. Magnificent Baroque palaces were erected in the mid-18th century. Among them were Anichkov Palace at number 39, Stroganov Palace at number 17 (see entries), and the wooden Winter Palace of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna built by architect F. B. Rastrelli between the Moika River and Malaya Morskaya Street in 1755 (not preserved). Nevsky Prospect became the main street of St. Petersburg in 1760s. It was all built up with four-storied and lower stone houses up to the Fontanka River by the late 18th century. The avenue retained its initial width of 25 meters between the Moika and the Main Admiralty with houses 8 and 10 built by architect A. V. Kvasov in 1760s, Chicherin"s house at number 15 in 1768-71, the Chaplins" house at number 13 in 1804-06, and Kotomin"s house at number 18 rebuilt in 1812-16. The development of Nevsky Prospect as a major shopping centre began with the construction of Bolshoy Gostiny Dvor at number 17/35 and Silversmith Shops at number 29-31 in 1761-85 and 1784-86, respectively. Strict and solemn buildings appeared in Nevsky Prospect and adjacent squares in the age of classicism in the first third of the 19th century including the tower of the City Duma erected by architect D. Ferrari in 1799-1804 to become the dominant building in the avenue, the Imperial Public Library (today, Russian National Library) built by architect E. T. Sokolov at number 37 in 1796-1801, the portico of Perinnaya Line built by architect L. Rusca at number 35 in 1806, I. O. Sukhozanet"s house built by architect D. Quadri at number 70 in 1820s, Princess Z. N. Yusupova"s house built by architect M. A. Ovsyannikov at number 86 at the same time and partly rebuilt by architect G. Fassati in 1835, as well as Kazan Cathedral and Alexandrinsky Theatre. The construction of a unique complex of various churches was completed on the even-numbered side of the avenue in 1830s. The complex included the Dutch Church at number 20, St. Peter"s Lutheran Church at number 22-24, St. Catherine"s Roman Catholic Cathedral built by architects J. B. Vallin de la Mothe and A. Rinaldi at number 32-34 in 1763-83, and St. Catherine"s Armenian Church between buildings 40 and 42. The Palace of Beloselsky-Belozerskys was built at number 42/41 to represent historicism. As capitalism developed in the mid and late 19th century, Nevsky Prospect turned into a business centre of the capital. New kinds of buildings appeared as a result, such as the Passage at number 48 and Nikolaevsky (Moskovsky) Terminal built by architect K. A. Ton in 1844-51. Multi-storied apartment houses with shops, restaurants, and cafes on the ground floor were built behind the Fontanka and in Staro-Nevsky Avenue. Banks, large business firms, and joint-stock companies sprang up in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Striking examples of eclectic architecture are the apartment houses of the Maltsev Family built by architect P. Y. Suzor at numbers 77 and 79 in 1874-75, buildings of Azovsko-Donskoy Bank built by architect B. I. Girshovich at number 62 in 1896-98, and International Commercial Bank built by architect S. A. Brzhozovsky at number 58 in 1896-97. The tower building of Singer Company was erected by architect P. Y. Suzor at number 28 in 1902-04 to become a new focus in the avenue. The building of the Eliseev Brothers" Business Partnership constructed by architect G. V. Baranovsky at number 56 in 1902-03 typifies early Art Nouveau. Art Nouveau is also present in the Moscow Merchants" Bank built by architect L. N. Benois at number 46 in 1901-02 and apartment houses of I. I. Kruglov built by civil engineer P. N. Batuev at number 147 in 1905-06, M. V. Voeykova built by civil engineer S. I. Minash at number 72 in 1909-10, and G. G. Hessel built by civil engineer L. M. Kharlamov at number 95 in 1912. Neoclassicism is reflected in the appearance of the Siberian Merchant Bank constructed by architect B. I. Girshovich at number 44 in 1908-10, I. V. Yunker and Co Trade House and Bank constructed by architect V. I. Van der Gucht at number 12 in 1910-12, Mertens Trade House constructed by architect M. S. Lyalevich at number 21 in 1911-12, M. I. Wawelberg"s Banking House constructed by architect M. M. Peretyatkovich at number 7-9 in 1911-12, etc. School building 14 by architect B. R. Rubanenko and building 146 by architect I. A. Vaks were both constructed in 1930s. Building 107 was erected by architects A. F. Belov and E. M. Lavrovskaya in 1952. The block wood pavement laid in Nevsky Prospect in the 1830s was replaced with asphalt in the 1930s. Gas illumination appeared in 1839. The first electric lamps in St. Petersburg were installed in 1883. Omnibuses started running regularly from Znamenskaya Square (Vosstaniya Square) in 1877. Horse trams started operating in 1863. A tram line laid in 1907 was withdrawn from service in 1952. There are five metro stations in the avenue: Ploshchad Vosstaniya, Nevsky Prospect, Mayakovskaya, Gostiny Dvor, and Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo. Footways were paved with tiles, and sometimes with granite, in 2000. Street lighting was upgraded in the same year. Many prominent Russian artists and scientists lived in Nevsky Prospect: artist K. P. Bryullov lived in house 6 in the summer of 1863; doctor E. E. Weimar, a hero of the Russian-Turkish War of 1877-78, owned house 10 in 1866-80. Member of Academy N. I. Vavilov lived at number 11 in 1928-40; A. S. Griboedov, M. P. Mussorgsky, and poetess I. V. Odoevtseva lived at number 13 in 1817, 1867-68, and 1987-90, respectively. Building 22 accommodated A. F. Smirdin"s bookstore in 1831-46. The House of Arts and the House of Books were opened at numbers 15 and 28 in 1919. The first Russian telephone exchange operated at number 26 in 1882-91. Architect A. N. Voronikhin lived at number 27 in 1806-14; statesman M. M. Speransky and poet F. I. Tyutchev at number 42 in 1823-35 and 1854-73, respectively; composer M. I. Glinka at number 49 in 1828-29 and 1851-52; poet N. A. Nekrasov at the same number in 1840-41; and writer I. A. Goncharov at number 51 in 1855-56. Building 52 has been accommodating the Puppet Theatre since 1937. The Theatre of Comedy has been situated at number 56 since 1929. Building 54 housed the workshop of photographer K. K. Bulla from the late 19th century to the early 20th century. Writer N. S. Leskov lived at number 63 in the 1880s. V. A. Zhukovsky and A. F. Voeykov lived at number 64. Many literati gathered in their flats in 1822-26. Critic V. G. Belinsky and writer I. S. Turgenev lived and worked at number 68 in 1842-46 and 1850-51. Building 70 has been accommodating the Journalist House since 1973. Writer G. P. Danilevsky lived at number 71. The first sound cinema in the USSR was opened at number 72 in 1929. The building housed the Club of Cinematographers and the House of Cinema in 1928-60. Balalaika player V. V. Andreev lived at number 77 in the mid-1890s, inventor A. F. Mozhaysky at number 78 in 1870s. Building 86 accommodated the Stanislavsky House of Theatre Workers from 1924. Composer M. A. Balakirev lived there in 1865-73. Writer M. N. Zagoskin lived at number 96 in 1815-20, lawyer A. F. Koni at number 100 in 1895-1907. Building 122 accommodated a dynamite workshop of the People"s Will Party and the editors of Narodnaya Volya (The People"s Will) in 1879. Members of People"s Will including N. A. Morozov and N. I. Kibalchich lived there as well. Composer B. V. Asafyev was born at number 139 in 1884. Composer V. P. Solovyev-Sedoy lived at the same number in 1907-19 and 1935-41. Among residents of house 147 were B. V. Asafyev, A. N. Tolstoy, and K. E. Makovsky in 1910s. See pictures on pages 555.

References: Сомина Р. А. Невский проспект. Л., 1959; Чеснокова А. Н. Невский проспект. Л., 1985; Дворцы Невского проспекта: Строгановский дворец. Аничков дворец. Дворец Белосельских-Белозерских. СПб., 2002; Прогулки по Невскому проспекту в первой половине XIX века: Сб. / Сост. А. М. Конечный. СПб., 2002; Шерих Д. Ю. По Невскому без скуки. М., 2003. B. M. Kirikov; Кириков Б. М., Кирикова Л. А., Петрова О. В. Невский проспект: Архитектурный путеводитель. М., 2004.

Persons
Andreev Vasily Vasilievich
Asafyev Boris Vladimirovich
Balakirev Mily Alexeevich
Baranovsky Gavriil Vasilievich
Batuev Peter Nikolaevich
Belinsky Vissarion Grigorievich
Belov Viktor Fedorovich
Benois Leonty Nikolaevich
Bryullov Karl Pavlovich
Brzhovsky Stanislav Antonovich
Bulla Karl Karlovich
Chicherin Nikolay Ivanovich
Danilevsky Grigory Petrovich
Elizaveta Petrovna, Empress
Ferrari Giacomo
Fossati Gaspare
Gerbel Nikolay Fedorovich
Girshovich Boris Ionovich
Glinka Mikhail Ivanovich
Goncharov Ivan Alexandrovich
Griboedov Alexander Sergeevich
Hessel G. G.
Kharlamov Leonid Mikhailovich
Kibalchich Nikolay Ivanovich
Koni Anatoly Fedorovich
Kotomin K.B.
Kruglov I.I.
Kvasov Alexey Vasilievich
Lavrovskaya Elena Mikhailovna
Leskov Nikolay Semenovich
Lyalevich Marian Stanislavovich
Makovsky Konstantin Egorovich
Mattarnovi Georg Iogann
Mertens Wilghelm Friedrich
Minash Sima Isaakovich (Semen Isaevich)
Morozov Nikolay Alexandrovich
Mozhaysky Alexander Fedorovich
Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich
Nekrasov Nikolay Alexeevich
Odoevtseva Irina Vladimirovna (real name Heinecke Iraida Gustavovna )
Ovsyannikov Mikhail Alexeevich
Peretyatkovich Marian Marianovich
Quadri Domenico
Rastrelli Francesco de
Rinaldi Antonio
Rubanenko Boris Rafailovich
Rusca Luigi (Aloisy Ivanovich)
Smirdin Alexander Filippovich
Sokolov Egor Timofeevich
Solovyev-Sedoy (real name Solovyev) Vasily Pavlovich
Speransky Mikhail Mikhailovich
Stanislavsky Konstantin Sergeevich
Sukhozanet Ivan Onufrievich
Suzor Pavel Yulievich
the Beloselsky-Belozerskys
the Chaplins
the Eliseevs
the Maltsevs (Maltsovs)
the Stroganovs
Tolstoy Alexey Nikolaevich
Ton Konstantin Andreevich
Turgenev Ivan Sergeevich
Tyutchev Fedor Ivanovich
Vaks Iosif Alexandrovich
Vallin de la Mothe Jean Baptiste Michel
Van-der-Gucht Vilgel Ivanovich
Vavilov Nikolay Ivanovich
Voeykov Alexander Fedorovich
Voeykova M.V.
Voronikhin Andrey Nikiforovich
Wawelberg Mikhail Ippolitovich
Weimar Orest Eduardovich
Yusupova Zinaida Ivanovna, Duchess
Zagoskin Mikhail Nikolaevich
Zhukovskaya V.A.

Addresses
Admiralteysky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city
Alexander Nevsky Square/Saint Petersburg, city
Malaya Morskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 79
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 41
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 37
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 95
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 58
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 71
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 63
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 52
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 11
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 6
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 107
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 146
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 21
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 31
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 96
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 122
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 44
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 15
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, litera между д.40 и 42
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 68
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 35
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 46
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 7-9
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 26
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 78
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 48
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 56
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 54
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 18
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 72
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 20
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 34
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 32
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 24
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 64
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 77
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 14
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 42
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 39
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 147
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 139
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 62
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 100
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 13
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 10
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 8
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 86
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 22
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 12
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 35/17
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 49
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 51
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 27
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 29
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 17
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 70
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 28
Vosstaniya Square/Saint Petersburg, city

Bibliographies
Сомина Р. А. Невский проспект. Л., 1959
Чеснокова А. Н. Невский проспект. Л., 1985
Буренина М.С. Прогулки по Невскому проспекту. СПб., 2002
Дворцы Невского проспекта: Строгановский дворец. Аничков дворец. Дворец Белосельских-Белозерских. СПб., 2002

The subject Index
Admiralty
Admiralty
Alexander Nevsky Lavra
Bolshoy Gostiny Dvor
St. Peter’s Lutheran Church
Anichkov Palace
Stroganov Palace
Chicherin House
House of Kotomin
Silver Trade Rows
City Duma
Russian National Library
Kazan Cathedral
Alexandrinsky Theatre
Dutch Reformed Church
St. Catherine’s Armenian Church
Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace
Passage, department store
Moskovsky Railway Station
Azovsko-Donskoy Commercial Bank
St. Petersburg International Commercial Bank
The House of Books, the Book Shop
Eliseevsky Shop
Eliseevsky Shop
Siberian Merchant Bank
Arts, The House of, literary society
Akimov Comedy Theatre
Journalist House
Narodnaya Volya

Chronograph
1711
1884
1912