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Entries / Cadet Corps (entry)

Cadet Corps (entry)


Categories / Science. Education/Educational Institutions
Categories / Army. Navy/Military Academies

CADET CORPS were military educational secondary boarding schools. Until 1917, they were aimed mainly at the nobility. The education began in cadet corps from the ages of 10-12 (in the 1770s-90s, from 5-8), and lasted seven to fifteen years. In the 18th century, they were general education institutions, and from the early 19th century - only military ones. Until the 1860s their graduates received the rank of officer. In 1862-64, military high schools were formed from the upper forms, and military gymnasiums from the middle classes. In 1881-82, they were returned the status of military educational institutions (acceptance from the age of twelve, training time was seven years). In March 1917, they were renamed military gymnasiums, and were abolished in early 1918. There were ten cadet corps functioning in St. Petersburg in various periods; the most famous are: the First Cadet Corps (in 1731-1800 - Land Cadet Corps; in 1800-64 and 1882-1917 - the First Cadet Corps, in 1864-82 - the First St. Petersburg Military Gymnasium). It was founded in 1731, and was located in the Menshikov Palace, to which new buildings were added (in 1730-40 - educational and residential buildings along the Kadetskaya Line of Vasilievsky Island, architect D. Trezzini; in 1756-59 - Manege at 13 University Embankment, architect I. Borhard; in 1771-73 - buildings for ball games, architect A.F. Kokorinov). In 1863-87, it was situated in the building of the former Pavlovsky Cadet Corps at Bolshaya Spasskaya Street. The Second Cadet Corps (in 1762-1800 - Artillery and Engineering Cadet Corps, in 1800-63 and 1882-1912 - the Second Cadet Corps, in 1863-82 - the Second St. Petersburg Military Gymnasium, in 1912-17 - Peter the Great's Second Imperial Cadet Corps). Founded in 1762, as part of the Artillery and Engineering School. Officers were trained there for artillery and engineering troops. It was situated at the Engineer Court, in a complex of buildings constructed for the purpose in the late 18th-19th century between present-day 11-13 Zhdanovskaya Embankment and 14-16 Krasnogo Kursanta Street. The major buildings were constructed in 1795-1803 (architect F.I. Demertsov); manege in 1819-20 (architect V.P. Stasov). The Pavlovsky Cadet Corps was formed in 1829 during the reorganisation of the Military Orphan House. In 1863, it was transformed into the First Pavlovsky Military High School. It was situated at Bolshaya Spasskaya Street (today 21 Krasnogo Kursanta Street). The Konstantin Cadet Corps was founded in 1855 during the reorganisation of the Noble Regiment. In 1859, it was reformed as the Second Konstantinovsky Military High School. It was situated at Obukhovsky Avenue (later - Zabalkansky Avenue, today Moscovsky Avenue). The Nicholas Cadet Corps was organised in 1882 from the training boarding school of the Nicholas Cavalry High School. It was situated in the building of the Military Law High School (23 Ofitserskaya Street, today Dekabristov Street). The Alexander Cadet Corps (from 1903 - the Cadet Corps of Emperor Alexander II) was formed in 1882 from the Third St. Petersburg Military Gymnasium. It was situated at 10 Sadovaya Street (architect A.I. Walbrecht, 1876). Alexander Cadet Corps of Tsarskoe Selo was founded in 1829 to prepare orphans and officers' children for entering the capital cadet corps. It was abolished in 1862. It was situated in the building of the Noble Boarding House at the Lyceum. In 1942-44, Syvorovsky and Nakhimovsky academies were established in the USSR on the model of cadet corps. In the late 1980s to the early 1990s the establishment of new cadet corps, of which the minority is state military educational secondary boarding institutions (acceptance from the age of twelve to sixteen, apprenticeship three-six years), others are municipal and private secondary general education schools, where some military subjects were taught and some features of military organisation are in practice (uniform, discipline, etc.). In 2003, there were five State Cadet Corps in St. Petersburg: Missile Artillery, Aerospace (in St. Petersburg), Borderguards, Railway (in Pushkin), Marine (in Kronstadt). See also: Page Corps, Marine Cadet Corps.

References: Лалаев М. С. Исторический очерк военно-учебных заведений, подведомственных Главному их Управлению: В 3 ч. СПб., 1880-1892; Греков Ф. В. Краткий исторический очерк военно-учебных заведений, 1700-1910. М., 1910; Крылов В. М. Кадетские корпуса и российские кадеты. СПб., 1998.

G. V. Kalashnikov.

Persons
Alexander II, Emperor
Borhard Johann
Demertsov Fedor Ivanovich
Kokorinov Alexander Filippovich
Peter I, Emperor
Stasov Vasily Petrovich
Trezzini Domenico
Wahlberg Alexander Ivanovich

Addresses
Dekabristov St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 23
Krasnogo Kursanta St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 21
Krasnogo Kursanta St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 16
Krasnogo Kursanta St./Saint Petersburg, city
Krasnogo Kursanta St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 14
Moskovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city
Sadovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 10
Siezdovskaya Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city
Universitetskaya Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city
Zhdanovskaya Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 13
Zhdanovskaya Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 11

Bibliographies
Лалаев М. С. Исторический очерк военно-учебных заведений, подведомственных Главному их Управлению: В 3 ч. СПб., 1880-1892
Крылов В. М. Кадетские корпуса и российские кадеты. СПб., 1998
Греков Ф. В. Краткий исторический очерк военно-учебных заведений, 1700-1910. М., 1910

The subject Index
Suvorov Military College, St. Petersburg
Nakhimov Navy School
Page Corps
Naval Cadet Corps

Chronograph
1731
1762
1803


College Buildings

COLLEGE BUILDINGS, group of college buildings including classes, workshops, library, assembly hall, recreation rooms, dormitories, etc. Among the first college buildings were the buildings of the Cadet Corps, Academy of Arts, Foster House

Konstantin Pavlovich (1779-1831),Grand Prince

KONSTANTIN PAVLOVICH (1779, Tsarskoe Selo - 1831), Grand Prince, Tsesarevich (Crown Prince) (from 1799). Second son of Emperor Pavel I. From 1797, Inspector General of the whole Cavalry, from June 1798 also Chief Commander of the Cadet Corps

Lines of Vasilievsky Island (entry)

LINES Of VASILIEVSKY ISLAND, the historical name of a number of parallel streets that intersect Vasilievsky Island from the south to the north: First to Twenty-Ninth Lines, Birzhevaya Line, Kozhevennaya Line, Kosaya Line, Mendeleevskaya Line

Mikhail Pavlovich, Grand Prince (1798-1849)

MIKHAIL PAVLOVICH (1798, St. Petersburg – 1849), Grand Prince, Adjutant General (1831), member of the State Council (1825), Senator (1834), Honorary Member of the Imperial Military Academy (1832)

Military Academies (entry)

MILITARY ACADEMIES, educational institutions of the Military Department, the graduates of which are directed to military service according to the qualification they receive

Military Orphans' House

MILITARY ORPHANS' HOUSE was a military boarding school for children (from four years age) of officers and soldiers, who were either impoverished or dead. It was founded in 1794 by the Grand Prince Pavel Petrovich (future Emperor Pavel I) in Gatchina

Nakhimov Navy School

NAKHIMOV NAVY SCHOOL (before 1991, the Leningrad Nakhimov Navy School), at 2-4 Petrogradskaya Embankment, is a specialised men's boarding secondary school named after Admiral P.S. Nakhimov (1802-1855)

Shchedrin A.F. (1796-1847), architect

SHCHEDRIN Apollon Feodosievich (1796-1847), architect, representative of late Neoclassicism. The son of F.F. Shchedrin. In 1818, graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts

The Alexandrovsky Cadet Corps

The Alexandrovsky Cadet Corps was established on May 30, 1830 for upbringing and education of minor orphans and sons of noble veterans. The Corps was under the patronage of Empress Alexandra Fedorovna

Universitetskaya Embankment

UNIVERSITETSKAYA EMBANKMENT (prior the end of the 18th century, Kadetskaya Embankment, until 1887 - Bolshaya Neva River Embankment), is situated on the right bank of the Bolshaya Neva, between Birzhevaya Square and Sixth Line of Vasilievsky Island