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Entries / Alexeevsky Ravelin

Alexeevsky Ravelin

Categories / City Administration/Police, Prisons

ALEXEEVSKY RAVELIN, an outer fortification of Peter and Paul fortress, situated in its western part, before Vasilievskaya curtain wall. The ravelin was named so in honour of Tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich. It was built in 1733-40 (engineer C.A. Munnich, C. de Marine). Since 1769 Alexeevsky ravelin has been housing a wooden prison for keeping prisoners of State. In 1797 a stone one-storeyed prison was constructed (architect P. Paton) meant for 20 solitary confinement cells, the Secret House. In 1775 in Alexeevsky ravelin impostor princess Tarakanova died custodial. Among its prisoners of the 1790s were writers A.N. Radishchev, F.V. Krechetov, Polish poet Y. Nemtsevich, P.V. Chichagov, M.I. Platov, and A.P. Ermolov. In 1825-26 25 Decembrists were imprisoned in Alexeevsky ravelin (including M.A. and N.A. Bestuzhevs, prince S.G. Volkonsky, V.K. and M.K. Kyukhelbekers, S.I. Muravyev-Apostol, prince E.P. Obolensky, prince A.I. Odoevsky, P.I. Pestel, I.I. Pushchin, prince S.P. Trubetskoy, I.D. Yakushin; Decembrist G.S. Batenkov spent nearly 19 years in Alexeevsky ravelin), as were 13 members of Petrashevsky's coterie in 1849 (M.V. Petrashevsky, F.M. Dostoevsky, S.F. Durov, P.A. Kuzmin and others). In 1851-54 M.A. Bakunin was put into Alexeevsky ravelin. M.S. Beideman spent 20 years here (1861-81). In the first half of the 1860s into Alexeevsky ravelin such public figures were incarcerated as N.G. Chernyshevsky (in 1862-64 while prisoner he wrote his novel What is to be done?), N.V. Shelgunov, V.A. Obruchev, N.A. Serno-Solovyevich, M. Nalbandian and others, in 1866 - D.V. Karakozov. In 1873-82 S.G. Nechaev was imprisoned in Alexeevsky ravelin; he died custodial. In March of 1882 the members of Narodnaya Volya sentenced for penal servitude were put into Alexeevsky ravelin. M.V. Teterka, M.R. Langans, N.V. Kletochnikov, A.I. Barannikov, A.D. Mikhaylov, N.N. Kolodkevich died having been not able to endure severe conditions. In August of 1884 the prison in Alexeevsky ravelin was abolished, and the last 15 prisoners were transported to the Shlisselburg fortress. In 1893 Secret House was knocked down, and by 1895 a 2-storeyed building of the Main Departments of the Ministry of war archives was erected on its site (military engineer F.Y. Kamenev). Until 1997 the building had been housing editorial board and the printing office of the newspaper of Leningrad Military District, Na strazhe Rodiny. Today the building is under the jurisdiction of the Museum of St. Petersburg history.

References: Щеголев П. Е. Алексеевский равелин: Кн. о падении и величии человека. М., 1989; Алексеевский равелин: Секрет. гос. тюрьма России в XIX в.: Сб.: В 2 кн. Л., 1990; Барабанова А. И., Вершевская М. В., Тихонова Н. С. Тайны "русской Бастилии". СПб., 2000.

A. D. Margolis.

Alexis I (Alexey Mikhailovich), Tsar
Bakunin Mikhail Alexandrovich
Barannikov Alexander Ivanovich
Barannikov Alexey Petrovich
Batenkov Gavriil Stepanovich
Bestuzhev Mikhail Alexandrovich
Bestuzhev Nikolay Alexandrovich
Beydeman Mikhail Stepanovich
Chernyshevsky Nikolay Gavrilovich
Chichagov Pavel Vasilievich
Dostoevsky Fedor Mikhailovich
Durov Sergey Fedorovich
Ermolov Alexey Petrovich
Kamenev Fedor Yakovlevich
Karakozov Dmitry Vladimirovich
Kletochnikov Nikolay Vasilievich
Kolodkevich Nikolay Nikolaevich
Krechetov Fedor Vasilievich
Kuchelbecker Mikhail Karlovich
Kuchelbecker Wilhelm Karlovich
Kuzmin Pavel Alexeevich
Langans Martin Rudolfovich
Margolis Alexander Davidovich
Marine Jean
Mikhaylov Alexander Dmitrievich
Minich Christoph Antonovich (Burghard Christoph), Count
Muravyev-Apostol Sergey Ivanovich
Nalbandyan Mikael
Nechaev Sergey Gennadievich
Nemtsevich Yulian Ursyn
Obolensky Evgeny Petrovich, Duke
Obruchev Vladimir Alexandrovich
Odoevsky Alexander Ivanovich
Paton Peter Yurievich
Pestel Pavel Ivanovich
Petrashevsky (Butashevich-Petrashevsky) Mikhail Vasilievich
Platov Matvey Ivanovich
Pushchin Ivan Ivanovich
Radishchev Alexander Nikolaevich
Serno-Solovyevich Nikolay Alexandrovich
Shchegolev Pavel Eliseevich
Shelgunov Nikolay Vasilievich
Tarakanova Elizaveta
Teterka Makar Vasilievich
Trubetskoy Sergey Petrovich, Duke
Volkonsky Sergey Grigorievich, Duke
Yakushkin Ivan Dmitrievich

Щеголев П. Е. Алексеевский равелин: Кн. о падении и величии человека. М., 1989
Алексеевский равелин: Секрет. гос. тюрьма России в XIX в.: Сб.: В 2 кн. Л., 1990
Барабанова А. И., Вершевская М. В., Тихонова Н. С. Тайны "русской Бастилии". СПб., 2000

The subject Index
St. Peter and Paul fortress
St. Peter and Paul fortress
Shlisselburg Fortress.
St. Petersburg Museum of History


Chernyshevsky N. G. (1828-1889), publicist, critic, writer

CHERNYSHEVSKY Nikolay Gavrilovich (1828-1889), publicist, writer, critic. From 1846-64 lived in St. Petersburg (with an interruption from 1851-53). Graduated from the Faculty of History and Philology of Petersburg University (1850)

Karakozov D.V. (1840-1866), revolutionary

KARAKOZOV Dmitry Vladimirovich (1840-1866, St. Petersburg), participant of the revolutionary movement of the 1860s. Upon graduating from Penza Gymnasium (1860) studied at the faculties of Law at Kazan University, then at Moscow University

Kuchelbecker W.K. (1797-1846), poet, decembrist

KUCHELBECKER Wilhelm Karlovich (1797, St. Petersburg - 1846), poet, decembrist, retired Collegiate Assessor. On graduating from Tsarskoe Selo Lycee (1817, classmate of A.S

Morozov N.A. (1854-1946), revolutionary, chemist, astronomer

MOROZOV Nikolay Alexandrovich (1854-1946), revolutionary-narodnik, writer, scientist, author of memoirs, honorary member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1932)

Muravyev-Apostol S.I. (1795-1826), decembrist

MURAVYEV-APOSTOL Sergey Ivanovich (1795, St. Petersburg - 1826), Decembrist, Lieutenant Colonel (1820). He was born in the house of Archpriest A.A. Samborsky (not preserved)

Pestel P.I., (1793-1926), Decembrist

PESTEL Pavel Ivanovich (1793-1826, St. Petersburg), Decembrist, colonel. In 1810-11 studied at Page Corps. Took part in the Patriotic War of 1812 and foreign campaigns of 1813-14

Petrashevsky M.V. (1821-1866), revolutionary

PETRASHEVSKY (Butashevich-Petrashevsky) Mikhail Vasilievich (1821, St. Petersburg 1866), public figure. In 1836-40 studied at Tsarskoselsky Lyceum, in 1840-41 – audited classes at the Faculty of Law of Petersburg University; received an academic

Prisons (entry)

PRISONS. The first prison in St. Petersburg (Convict gaol, or Convict yard, until 1732 under the jurisdiction of the Admiralty) was built in 1706 in the area of present-day Truda square

Ryleev K.F. (1795-1826), decembrist

RYLEEV Kondraty Fedorovich (1795-1826, St. Petersburg), poet, decembrist, retired 2nd lieutenant. Came to St. Petersburg in 1801. Graduated from the First Cadet Corps (1814). He participated in the Foreign Campaigns of 1813-14

Serno-Solovyevich N.A. (1834-1866), revolutionary

SERNO-SOLOVYEVICH Nikolay Alexandrovich (1834, St. Petersburg - 1866), public figure, man of letters. Upon graduating from Alexandrovsky Lyceum (1853) served at the State Chancellery; On 24 September 1858 submitted a petition to Emperor Alexander II