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Entries / Mariinsky Theatre

Mariinsky Theatre

Categories / Art/Music, Theatre/Theaters, Concert Organizations

MARIINSKY THEATRE, State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre (1 Teatralnaya Square), which takes its origin from the Russian court company established in 1783 "not only for comedies and tragedies, but for operas also". At that time the court department exercised control over Italian Opera, French Opera and Drama troupes, a ballet and two orchestras. Actors performed at the Maly Wooden Theatre set up "At Tsaritsyn Meadow" (1783-96), the Bolshoy Stone Theatre (1783, architect А. Rinaldi, built anew in 1836 by architect A.K. Cavos; at Karuselnaya Square (currently called Teatralnaya), the Hermitage Theatre (1783-96), the Circus-Theatre (1849, architect Cavos), which was rebuilt as the Mariinsky Theatre in 1860 by architect Cavos. In 1919 the theatre assumed the title of Academic Theatre, to adopt the name of State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre in 1920. In 1935, name Kirov was added to the title of the theatre. The establishment resumed its previous name, that of the Mariinsky Theatre, during the season of 1991/92. The theatre was rebuilt in 1883-96 and 1968-70. The collective of performers of the Mariinsky Theatre comprises an opera company (solo performers and chorus), a ballet company and two orchestras. The theatre also possesses of a unique musical library which has been compiled since the mid-18th century. In the 18th century Russian court company was not yet divided into opera and drama troupes. Singing artists (like Y.S. and A.I. Vorobyev, A.M. Krutitsky, S.I. and E.S. Sandunov et al.) appeared in comic operas with speaking parts. The repertoire included works of Italian and French composers, translated into Russian, as well as proper Russian operas composed by St. Petersburg composers V.A. Pashkevich, E.I. Fomin and V. Martin y Soler. In 1803, the Russian Opera Company separated from drama. During K.A. Cavos' term as conductor (from 1806 to 1840), a new generation of Russian opera artists was raised, which included O.A. Petrov and A.Y. Petrova-Vorobyeva, V.M. and S.V. Samoylov, E.A. Semenova et al. These performers took part in the staging of M.I. Glinka's operas A Life for the Tsar (1836) and Ruslan and Lyudmila (1842), which laid the foundation of Russian operetic classics. In 1846-50, the company was moved to Moscow, with the resumption of regular performances in St. Petersburg only in 1851. In 1856 the premiere of A.S. Dargomyzhsky's opera The The Mermaid took place in the theatre. From 1860, the Mariinsky Theatre had become the centre of national opera. It hosted the premieres of classical works by N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov, M.P. Mussorgsky, P.I. Tchaikovsky. Productions of R. Wagner's opera Der Ring des Nibelungen (1900-05), G. Verdi's operas and R. Strauss's operas represented an important milestone in the history of Russian art. The company itself comprised of artists immortalised in the history of Russian and world theatre: I.A. Alchevsky, I.V. Ershov, N.I. Zabela-Vrubel, V.I. Kastorsky, F.V. Litvin, E.K. Mravina, Y.F. Platonova, L.V. Sobinov, F.I. Stravinsky, M.I. and N.N. Figner and F.I. Chaliapin. The productions of operas by A. Berg (Wozzeck, 1928) and S.S. Prokofiev (The Love for Three Oranges, 1926) went down in post-revolutionary history of the theatre. In 1976-88, the chief conductor and art director of the theatre was Y.K. Temirkanov. The best opera productions of the theatre were A.P. Petrov's Peter the First (1975), Prokofiev's War and Peace (1977), R.K. Shchedrin's Dead Souls (1978) and Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov (1896). Among the prominent opera singers of the Soviet period were I.P. Bogacheva, G.A. Kovaleva, N.K. Pechkovsky, S.P. Preobrazhenskaya, L.P. Filatova, and B.I. Shtokolov. Those responsible for the musical direction of performances were K.N. Lyadov (1860-69), E.F. Napravnik (1869-1916), V.A. Dranishnikov (1925-32), A.M. Pazovsky (1936-43), and B.E. Haykin. Operas were put on the stage by O.O. Palecek, V.E. Meyerhold, S.E. Radlov and E.I. Kaplan, while V.A. Gergiev has been performing the functions of the chief conductor since 1988 along with those of the art manager and director of the theatre since 1996. The soloists of the Mariinsky Theatre include O.V. Borodina, V. Galuzin, N.G. Putilin, L.I. Dyadkova, A. Netrebko, L.A. Shevchenko, A.A. Steblyanko, G.I. Bezzubenkov, S.N. Alexashkin, K.I. Pluzhnikov and N.P. Okhotnikov. Among the best productions of the recent years are The Gambler and The Fiery Angel (1992), and Semen Kotko (1999) by Prokofiev; Parsifal (1998) and Der Ring des Nibelungen (1998-2002) by Wagner; The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh and the Maiden Fevronia by Rimsky-Korsakov (2001). In 1998, the Academy of Young Singers (under the art direction of L.A. Gergieva) was established as part of the Mariinsky Theatre. Since 1993, the theatre has held the international arts festival The Stars of the White Nights. Court ballet took shape before Russian opera, as a result of establishing the Dance School (see Academy of Russian Ballet). In 1741, its graduates formed a court ballet company, together with Italian and French artists. It retained this mixed character until 1917, with a prevalence of foreign ballet-masters almost until the end of the 19th century. Initially, the ballet formed a part of Italian opera seria, then, until almost the late 19th century, operas and ballets were merged. In the 18th century, the court company comprised of some prominent European ballet-masters, like А. Rinaldi, F. Hilferding, G.Angiolini; among the dancers were A.S. Sergeeva, V.M. Mikhaylova, T.S. Bublikov, S. Obri, C. Le Picq and G. Le Picq, N.P. Berilova et al. In the 19th century, the style of the court ballet was established by I.I. Valberkh, C. Didelot; the great reformer S. Didelot, father and daughter P. and M. Taglioni, J. Perrot, A. Saint-Leon, L.I. Ivanov and M.I. Petipa (ballet-master since 1862, and the chief ballet-master from 1869 to 1903). The latter ballet-master brought out ballet to the peak of its power. In the 19th century and early 20th century Russian ballet was glorified by the names of E.I. Kolosova, A.I. Istomina, M.F. Kschessinska, A.P. Pavlova, T.P. Karsavina, V.F. Nijinsky, O.A. Spesivtseva, as well as those of F. Elssler, C. Grisi, C. Brianza, P. Legnani et al. In the early 20th century М. М. Fokine (1905-17) broke away from the existing choreographic traditions; the choreography he invented was made the common property of the whole world due to the performances of the Ballets Russes of S.P. Dyagilev. During the Soviet period, prominent ballet-masters were F.V. Lopukhov, R.V. Zakharov, L.M. Lavrovsky and L.V. Yakobson. In the years before the war, an excellent ballet troupe was formed: it included such dancers as E.M. Lyukom, O.G. Iordan, G.S. Ulanova, N.M. Dudinskaya, T.M. Vecheslova, A.Y. Shelest, V.M. Chabukiani, and K.M. Sergeev. The turn of the 1950s-60s marked the counter switch from ballet drama to the pure element of dance. This tendency was brought to life by Y.N. Grigorovich (The Stone Flower by Prokofiev, 1957, A.D. Melikov's Legend of Love, 1961) and I.D. Belsky (A.P. Petrov's Shore of Hope, 1959, D.D. Shostakovich's Leningrad Symphony, 1961; Grigorovich performed the functions of the chief ballet-master from 1973 to 1977). This period saw the flowering of the talent of N.A. Kurgapkina, I.G. Hensler, A.E. Osipenko, I.A. Kolpakova, K.I. Fedicheva, G.T. Komleva, A.I. Sizova, N.R. Makarova, A.A. Sapogov, A.V. Gridin, A.I. Gribov, R.K. Nureyev, Y.V. Solovyev, M.N. Baryshnikov. In 1951-55 and 1960-70 the chief ballet-master of the theatre was K.M. Sergeev, succeeded by O.M. Vinogradov in 1977-90. Currently, the company prefers to summon guest choreographers. Beside the classical ballets, the stage of the Mariinsky Theatre has in recent years hosted ballets of G. Balanchine, A. Tudor, R. Petit, J. Robbins, K. MacMillan, J. Neumeier, H. Lander and A. Ratmansky. For the last few years A.A. Asylmuratova, M.G. Kullik, Y.V. Makhalina, U.V. Lopatkina, D.M. Vishneva, S.Y. Zakharova, I.A. Zelensky, F.S. Ruzimatov, A.G. Fadeev et al. have performed at the Mariinsky Theatre. The director of the ballet company is M.K. Vaziev. Since 2001 the theatre has been holding the annual international ballet festival Mariinsky. The audience hall can seat 1,625 spectators.

References: Красовская В. М. Русский балетный театр...: [В 4 т.]. Л., 1958-1972; Ее же. Балет Ленинграда: Акад. театр оперы и балета им. С. М. Кирова. Л., 1961; Лопухов Ф. В. Шестьдесят лет в балете: Воспоминания и записки балетмейстера. М., 1966; Гозенпуд А. А. Русский оперный театр XIX века: В 3 т. Л., 1969-1973.

E. V. Tretyakova, G.N. Dobrovolskaya.

Abaza Alexander Aggeevich
Alchevsky Ivan Alexeevich
Alexashkin Sergey Nikolaevich
Angiolini Domenico Gasparo Maria
Asylmuratova Altynay Abduakhimovna
Balanchivadze Georgy Melitonovich (George Balanchine)
Baryshnikov Mikhail Nikolaevich
Belsky Igor Dmitrievich
Berg Alban
Berilova Anastasia Parfentievna
Bezzubenkov Gennady Ivanovich
Bogacheva Irina Petrovna
Borodina Oga Vladimirovna
Brianza Carlotta
Bublikov (Bublichenko) Timofey Semenovich
Cavos Albert Katarinovich
Cavos Caterino Albertovich
Chabukiani Vakhtang Mikhailovich
Chaliapin Fedor Ivanovich
Dargomyzhsky Alexander Sergeevich
Didelot Charles Louis Frederic
Dranishnikov Vladimir Alexandrovich
Dudinskaya Natalia Mikhailovna
Dyadkova Larisa Ivanovna
Dyagilev Sergey Pavlovich
Elssler Fanny (Franziska)
Ershov Ivan Vasilievich
Fadeev Andrian G.
Fedicheva Kaleria Ivanovna
Figner Medea Ivanovna
Figner Nikolay Nikolaevich
Filatova Lyudmila Pavlovna
Fokin Mikhail Mikhailovich
Fomin Evstigney Ipatovich
Galuzin Vladimir Vasilievich
Gergiev Valery Abisalovich
Gergieva Larisa Abisalovna
Glinka Mikhail Ivanovich
Gridin Anatoly Vasilievich
Grigorovich Yury Nikolaevich
Grisi Carlotta
Haykin Boris Emmanuilovich
Hensler Irina Georgievna
Hilferding Franz Anton Christoph
Iordan Olga Genrikhovna
Istomina Avdotya Ilyinichna
Ivanov Lev Ivanovich
Kaplan Emmanuil Iosifovich
Karsavina Tamara Platonovna
Kastorsky Vladimir Ivanovich
Kirov (real name Kostrikov) Sergey Mironovich
Kolosova Evgeniya Ivanovna
Kolpakova Irina Alexandrovna
Komleva Gabriela Trofimovna
Kovaleva Galina Vasilievna
Krutitsky Anton Mikhailovich
Kschessinska Mathilde (Maria) Felixovna
Kullik Margarita G.
Kurgapkina Ninella Alexandrovna
Lander Harald (real name Stevnsberg Alfred Bernhardt)
Lavrovsky (real name Ivanov) Leonid Mikhailovich
Le Pique Charles
Le Pique Gertrude
Legat Sergey Gustavovich
Legnani Pierina
Litvin Felia Vasilievna (real name Schutz Francoise-Jeanne)
Lopatkina Ulyana Vyacheslavovna
Lopukhov Fedor Vasilievich
Lyadov Konstantin Nikolaevich
Lyukom Elena Mikhailovna
MacMilan Connet
Makarova Natalia Romanovna
Makhalina Yulia Viktorovna
Martin y Soler Vicente
Melikov Arif Dzhangirovich
Meyerhold Vsevolod Emilievich
Mikhaylova Varvara Mikhailovna
Mravina Evgenia Konstantinovna
Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich
Napravnik Eduard Frantsevich
Netrebko Anna
Neumeier John
Nijinsky Vaclav Fomich
Nureyev Rudolf Khametovich
Obri (Ubri) Santina
Okhotnikov Nikolay Petrovich
Osipenko Alla Evgenievna
Palecek Josef (Osip Osipovich)
Pashkevich Vasily Alexeevich
Pavlova A.I.
Pazovsky Ary Moiseevich
Pechkovsky Nikolay Konstantinovich
Perrot Jules Joseph
Petipa Marius Ivanovich
Petit Roland
Petrov Andrey Pavlovich
Petrov Osip Afanasievich
Petrova-Vorobyeva Anna Yakovlevna
Platonova Yulia Fedorovna
Pluzhnikov Konstantin Ilyich
Preobrazhenskaya Sofia Petrovna
Prokofiev Sergey Sergeevich
Putilin Nikolay G.
Radlov Sergey Ernestovich
Ratmansky Alexey Osipovich
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay Andreevich
Rinaldi Antonio
Rinaldi Antonio (aka Fusano)
Robbins Jerome
Ruzimatov Farukh Sadullaevich
Saint-Leon Charles Victor Arthur Michel
Samoylov Vasily Mikhailovich
Samoylova Sofia Vasilievna
Sandunov Sila Nikolaevich
Sandunova Elizaveta Semenovna
Sapogov Anatoly Alexandrovich
Semenova E.A.
Sergeev Konstantin Mikhailovich
Sergeeva A.S.
Shchedrin Rodion Konstantinovich
Shelest Alla Yakovlevna
Shevchenko Larisa Andreevna
Shostakovich Dmitry Dmitrievich
Shtokolov Boris Timofeevich
Sizova Alla Ivanovna
Sobinov Leonid Vitalievich
Solovyev Yury Vladimirovich
Spesivtseva Olga Alexandrovna
Steblyanko Alexey Alexeevich
Strauss Richard
Stravinsky Fedor Ignatievich
Taglioni Marie
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilyich
the Taglionis
Tudor Anthony
Ulanova Galina Sergeevna
Valberkh Ivan Ivanovich
Vaziev Makhar Khasanovich
Vecheslova Tatyana Mikhailovna
Verdi Giuseppe
Vinogradov Oleg Mikhailovich
Vishneva Diana Viktorovna
Vorobyev A.I.
Vorobyev Yakov Stepanovich
Wagner Richard
Yakobson Leonid Veniaminovich
Zabela-Vrubel Nadezhda Ivanovna
Zakharov Rostislav Vladimirovich
Zakharova Svetlana Yurievna
Zelensky Igor Anatolievich

Teatralnaya Square/Saint Petersburg, city, house 1

Красовская В. М. Русский балетный театр...: [В 4 т.]. Л., 1958 -72
Лопухов Ф. В. Шестьдесят лет в балете: Воспоминания и записки балетмейстера. М., 1966
Гозенпуд А. А. Русский оперный театр XIX века: В 3 т. Л., 1969-1973
Красовская В. М. Балет Ленинграда: Акад. театр оперы и балета им. С. М. Кирова. Л., 1961

The subject Index
Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet
Stars of White Nights, festival