Press. Mass Media/Radio
RADIO. The first radio transmitter (lightning detector) was demonstrated by А. S. Popov in 1895 at St. Petersburg University. In 1900 Russia's first radio workshop started operations in Kronstadt. In 1902 the works of the Siemens and Galske firm started producing radio transmitters in mass production. By the year 1917, a number of radio stations were already operating in Petrograd and its vicinities: in Tsarskoe Selo, in New Holland, in Tauride Palace and some other places. In 1924, the first street horn-type loud speakers were placed on the wall of Bolshoy Gostiny Dvor at 92 Nevsky Prospect, 37 Herzena Street (now Bolshaya Morskaya Street). The large-scale installation of wired radio units in households was launched in 1927. In 1933, the Committee for Development of Broadcast Networks and Radio Broadcasting was established (located in the house of Nobility Assembly at 27 Italyanskaya Street, now known as Radio House). The year 1934 saw the establishment of the Leningrad City Radio Broadcast Network (LGRS) and the Radio Committee. Artistic broadcasting started in 1924. The same year Leningrad heard the first radio concerts, and in 1925 the first live performance of G. Bizet's Carmen was broadcast from the State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet. In the early 1930s other radio formats started to be introduced: e.g. those of social and political issues broadcast content, all-news format, artistic broadcasting, the latter encompassing programs for children, featuring literary and drama pieces, music); in the post-war period radio aired musical bands. In 1928, Leningrad radio first hosted a radio-theatre. In the 1930s, the programming featured acts with heroic themes, director Y. M. Yuryev, as well as children's programs. Writers N. S. Tikhonov, B. А. Lavrenev, musicians I. I. Sollertinsky, Y. Y. Weinkop, and composer D. D. Shostakovich participated in the production of radio programmes. In the 1920s-30s, radio could boast of its own directors and actors such as М. G. Petrova, Y. N. Kalganov, V. P. Lebedev, I. F. Ermakov; in the 1940s it was V. S. Yarmagaev. In the 1920s-30s, the Radio Committee had an orchestra (until 1953), folk instruments orchestra, and choir; after 1945 - a jazz band, children's choir; subsequently joined by V. V. Andreev Folk Instruments Orchestra. By 1941 there were around 460,000 individual and over 1700 street loudspeakers in Leningrad. During the siege of 1941-44 the Leningrad City Radio Broadcast Network was on air 24 hours transmitting air-raid warnings and all-clear signals, with a reassuring ticking of the metronome during the breaks. Programs like Radio Chronicle, Red Army Newspaper and others featured actors, cultural figures (А. N. Tolstoy, Shostakovich et al.), poets Olga Bergholz, V. V. Vishnevsky. On 9 August 1942, the orchestra of the Radio Committee conducted by K.I. Eliasberg gave Leningrad the debut on-air performance of Shostakovich's Seventh Symphony. In 1959 came the revival of radio theatre with radio performances directed by G. А. Tovstonogov, R. S. Agamirzyan, R. R. Suslovich, radio director Lebedev, V. S. Yarmagaev, Z. V. Davydova, Е. А. Agafonov et al.). In the 1960s-90s programs Forest News (with V. V. Bianki), Literary Readings, Eyes and Ears Wide Open for Petersburg, In the light genre were broadcast. In 1967-70, a three-channel radio broadcast system was introduced in Leningrad. By 1990, Leningrad had 3.5 million private loudspeakers. In 1998, upon the reorganisation of the State Television and Radio Company into the Open Joint Stock Company Television and Radio Company Petersburg, Petersburg radio lost its musical bands except the children's choir). In 2001 the First Channel of the City Broadcast Network was turned over to the Radio Russia All-Russian Television and Radio Company, which hampered the development of artistic content in the programming. A street memorial loudspeaker was set at 62 Nevsky Prospect (designers А. P. Chernov and P. A. Chernov).
References: Калганов Ю. Первые годы Ленинградского радио // В первые годы советского музыкального строительства: Ст., воспоминания, материалы. Л., 1959. С. 205-230; Марченко Т. А. Радиотеатр. М., 1970; Палладин П. А., Зегер М. Г., Вьюник А. А. Ленинградское радио: от блокады до оттепели. М., 1991.
L. S. Markhasev, Y. N. Kruzhnov.
Agamirzyan Ruben Sergeevich
Andreev Vasily Vasilievich
Bergholz Olga Fedorovna
Bianki Vitaly Valentinovich
Chernov Anatoly Petrovich
Davydova Zoya V.
Eliasberg Karl Ilyich
Kalganov Yury Nikolaevich
Lavrenev Boris Andreevich
Petrova Maria Grigorievna
Shostakovich Dmitry Dmitrievich
Sollertinsky Ivan Ivanovich
Suslovich Rafail Rafailovich
Tikhonov Nikolay Semenovich
Tolstoy Alexey Nikolaevich
Tovstonogov Georgy Alexandrovich
Vishnevsky Vsevolod Vitalievich
Weinkop Yulian Yakovlevich
Yarmagaev Vladimir Serafimovich
Yuryev Yury Mikhailovich
Bolshaya Morskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 37
Italyanskaya Street/Saint Petersburg, city, house 27
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 62
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 92
Калганов Ю. Первые годы Ленинградского радио // В первые годы советского музыкального строительства: Ст., воспоминания, материалы. Л., 1959
Вьюник А. А., Палладин П.А., Зегер М.Г. Ленинградское радио: от блокады до "оттепели". М., 1991
The subject Index
State University, St. Petersburg
Siege of 1941-44