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The subject index / Lomonosov Porcelain Factory

Lomonosov Porcelain Factory

Categories / Art/Fine Arts/Art and Craft Production
Categories / Economy/Industry

LOMONOSOV PORCELAIN FACTORY (LPF) (151 Obukhovskoy Oborony Anevue) is the largest porcelain factory in the country, leading manufacturer of decorative porcelain. The factory was established in 1744 as the Portselinovaya Manufactory. In 1765 it was renamed Imperial Porcelain Factory, and in 1917 —State Porcelain Factory. The factory was named after M. V. Lomonosov in 1925. The factory has had its present-day name since 1993. The discovery of making solid porcelain of domestic raw materials by D. I. Vinogradov (there is a memorial plaque on the building of the factory) contributed to growth of the factory. From the day of its foundation, the factory completed orders of the royal court, and the product line of the Factory revealed the tastes dominating at the court. The factory employed both Russian and foreign craftsmen. An important role in the history of the factory was played by French sculptor J. D. Rachette (modelmeister in 1779-1814), the founder of classicism tradition in Russian porcelain-making. Grand table services, named Arabeskovy (1784), Yakhtinsky (1780-90s), and Kabinetsky (1795) numbering up to 1000 items, were produced at the factory during the time of his service. In 1809-30, the sculptural workshop was supervised by S. S. Pimenov, who designed porcelain pieces in the Empire style used in Guryevsky table service (1809-17) with the artwork based on drawings from the book by C. Geissler entitled “St. Petersburg scenes and types.” From the 1830s on, the factory products felt the influence of eclecticism, distinguished by outward luxury and wealth of decor. The products included palace table services for the majority of Imperial residences of St. Petersburg under Emperor Alexander I and Emperor Nicholas I (for example, Banketny table service made in 1848-53 with some 5500 items for the Grand Palace in Peterhof). During the reign of Emperor Alexander II who showed no interest in the factory the output was reduced. In the 1880-90s, under the influence of Emperor Alexander III, Chinese and Japanese vases were preferred, and underglaze painting became fashionable. In the beginning of the 20th century, artists V. A. Serov, K. A. Somov, sculptors K. K. Rausch von Traubenberg and S. N. Sudbinin who embodied the Russian Art Nouveau style in artistic porcelain worked for the Factory. In 1918, the factory passed under the jurisdiction of the People's Commissariat of Education. The Commissariat commissioned production of the so-called propaganda porcelain according to the sketches and models by artist S . V. Chekhonin, who served as the artistic adviser of the factory in 1918-23 and in 1925-27, and artists A. V. Shchekatikhina-Pototskaya, M. V. Lebedeva, sculptor N. Y. Danko, V. V. Kuznetsova and others. A number of original shapes and patterns were created by artists representing the Suprematist school of art, headed by K. S. Malevich. In the 1930-50s, the factory produced serial everyday tableware and special items as ordered by state commissions (vases, sculptures), as well as technical porcelain. The artistic laboratory of the factory, opened in 1930, was headed by N. M. Suetin in 1932-52. The laboratory worked on designing the style of socialist everyday art. In the 1960s, the interest in white porcelain, simple shapes and constructional laconicism of geometrical volumes came back. New models were developed for serial and mass production of genre sculpture, table and tea services, and decorative vases. Making of thin-walled bone porcelain was started in 1968. Present-day factory products are made according to the design by artists and sculptors A. V. Vorobievsky, V. M. Gorodetsky, E. M. Krimmer, A. A. Leporskaya, V. L. Semenova, N. P. Slavina, S. E. Yakovleva, I. I. Riznich, E. I. Charushin, A. A. Yatskevich and others. The collection of the factory museum founded in 1844 numbered some 20,000 exhibits when in 2001 it was transferred to the State Hermitage. The names of Forforovskaya Street and Forforovskaya railway station originate from the name of the factory.

References: Императорский фарфоровый завод, 1744-1904. СПб., 1906; Русский фарфор: Искусство первого в России фарфорового з-да. Л., 1968; Советский фарфор: Искусство Ленингр. гос. фарфорового з-да им. М. В. Ломоносова. Л., 1974; Агаркова Г. Д. Ленинградские фарфористы. М., 1984.

O. L. Leikind, D. Y. Severyukhin.

Alexander I, Emperor
Alexander II, Emperor
Alexander III, Emperor
Catherine II, Empress
Charushin Evgeny Ivanovich
Chekhonin Sergey Vasilievich
Danko Natalia Yakovlevna
Geissler Christian Gottfried Heinrich
Gorodetsky Vladimir Mikhailovich
Krimmer Eduard Mikhailovich
Kuznetsov Vasily Vasilievich
Lebedeva Maria Vasilievna
Leporskaya Anna Alexandrovna
Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilievich
Malevich Kazimir Severinovich
Nicholas I, Emperor
Pimenov Stepan Stepanovich
Rachette Jean-Dominique
Rausch von Traubenberg Konstantin Konstantinovich, Baron
Riznich I.I.
Semenova V.L.
Serov Valentin Alexandrovich
Shchekatikhina-Pototskaya Alexandra Vasilievna
Slavina N.P.
Somov Konstantin Andreevich
Sudbinin Serafim Nikolaevich
Suetin Nikolay Mikhailovich
Vinogradov Dmitry Ivanovich
Vorobyevsky Alexey Viktorovich
Yakovleva Serafima Evgenievna
Yatskevich A.A.

Farforovskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city
Obukhovskoy Oborony Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 151

Императорский фарфоровый завод, 1744-1904. СПб., 1906
Русский фарфор: Искусство первого в России фарфорового з-да. Л., 1968
Советский фарфор: Искусство Ленингр. гос. фарфорового з-да им. М. В. Ломоносова. Л., 1974
Агаркова Г. Д. Ленинградские фарфористы. М., 1984

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