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Entries / Kamenny Island, ensemble

Kamenny Island, ensemble

Categories / Architecture/Architectural Monuments/Architectural Ensembles
Categories / City Topography/Geographical Objects/Islands

KAMENNY ISLAND (in 1920-89 - Trudyashchikhsya Island), in the north-west part of the Neva river delta, located between the Bolshaya Nevka River to the north and the Malaya Nevka River to the south, the Krestovka River lies to the east. It occupies an area of 10.6 square kilometres. In the early 18th century, the island was granted to chancellor G.I. Golovkin (his estate was located in the western part of the island but has not preserved). In 1734, the island passed to his son, A.G. Golovkin, under whom the second manor (not preserved) was built close to the east spit. In 1746, the land was acquired by A.P. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, who developed the territory and built canals (see Canals of Kamenny Island), laid the park and erected a manor in the east part of the island. In 1758, Kamenny Island was taken over by the Treasury to be presented by Empress Catherine II to Grand Prince Pavel Petrovich (the future Emperor Pavel I) in 1765. In 1776-81, Kamennoostrovsky Palace was built on the foundation of the palace of Bestuzhev-Ryumin. In 1776-78, "Gothic" Nativity of St. John the Baptist Church was erected. In the first quarter of the 19th century, the palace complex was amplified with a conservatory and a riding-house (architect L. Rusca, L.I. Charlemagne). In 1820, architect J. Thomas de Thomon reconstructed the park. It was then that development of the west part of the island was launched: in 1827, the wooden Kamennoostrovsky Theatre (10 Krestovka River Embankment; architect S.L. Shustov), two private dachas (1824 and 1826, architects C.I. Rossi, G.P.Pilnikov and L.I. Charlemagne), the summer residence of Prince V.V. Dolgorukov (prince P.G. Oldenburgsky ) (1831-32, architect S. L. Shustov; 11 Malaya Nevka River Embankment), "ministers'" residences at 7 Krestovka River Embankment (1810, architects G.P.Pilnikov, L.I. Charlemagne) and 11 Krestovka River Embankment (1836, architect L.I. Charlemagne) were constructed. In the 19th century, the island was a traditional place of festivals and open-air celebrations. In 1895, landholders were allowed to lease their grounds as building lots; as the result, a quantity of summer residences and manors in eclecticism style, "Russian style", Art Nouveau and Neo-Classicism (architects V.P. Apyshkov, N.N. Verevkin, M.S. Lyalevich, K.G. Preys, A.I. Tomishko and I.A. Fomin took part in its construction) appeared on the island at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries. Architects R.F. Meltzer, V.I. Shene and F.F. Postels designed their private houses on Kamenny Island. The striking example of Neo-Classicism is the summer residence of Polovtsov. In 1908, the International Architectural Exhibition, the first in the country, was held on Kamenny Island, there achievements of Russian builders were demonstrated. In the 1920s, following the resolution of Petrograd Soviet a number of summer residences were turned into holiday homes and the Quiet Rest Park was laid out on a part of the territory. Several precious architectural monuments were demolished in the 1970s-80s on the account of the construction of government residences. The names of Kamennoostrovsky Avenue and Kamennoostrovsky Bridge come from the island.

References: Витязева В. А. Каменный остров. Л., 1975; Ее же. Невские о-ва. Л., 1985.

V. G. Isachenko

Apyshkov Vladimir Petrovich
Bestuzhev-Ryumin Alexey Petrovich, Count
Catherine II, Empress
Charlemagne Ludwig Iosifovich
Dolgorukov Vasily Vasilievich, Duke
Fomin Ivan Alexandrovich
Golovkin Alexander Gavrilovich, Count
Golovkin Gavriil Ivanovich, Count
Lyalevich Marian Stanislavovich
Meltzer Roman (Robert-Friedrich) Fedorovich
Oldenburgsky Peter (Konstantin Friedrich Peter) Georgievich, Prince
Paul (Pavel) I, Emperor
Pilnikov Grigory Petrovich
Postels Fedor Fedorovich (Friedrich Friedrichovich) von
Preys Konstantin Georgievich
Rossi Carl Ivanovich (Carlo Giovanni)
Rusca Luigi (Aloisy Ivanovich)
Shene Vasily Ivanovich
Shustov Smaragd Loginovich
Thomas de Thomon Jean-Francois
Tomishko (Tomishka) Antony Osipovich (Iosifovich)
Verevkin Nikolay Nikolaevich

Kamennoostrovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city
Krestovka River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 10
Krestovka River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 7
Malaya Nevka River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 11

Витязева В. А. Каменный остров. Л., 1975
Витязева В. А. Невские острова: Елагин, Крестовский, Каменный. Л., 1985

The subject Index
Nativity of St. John the Baptist Church