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Entries / Historical style (Eclecticism)

Historical style (Eclecticism)


Categories / Architecture/Architectural Styles

HISTORICAL STYLE (Eclecticism), architectural style of the 1830s-90s. The sense of Eclecticism is the free choice or the amalgamation of methods and motifs of a variety of historical styles, associatively expressing the purpose of buildings. The aesthetics of Romanticism expressed in the works of architect A.A. Menelas in the Tsar's village and Peterhof, became an impulse for the emergence of the historical style. In St. Petersburg, the emergence of the historical style was tied to the works of architect A. P. Bryullov (St. Peter’s Lutheran Church, 1833-38; 22-24 Nevsky Prospect) and other architects. The leading St. Petersburg architect of the mid-19th century, A. I. Stakensсhneider, masterfully combined features of Baroque, Roccoco, Renaissance, and antiquity in his palaces, mansions, and park pavilions (Beloselsky-Belozerskys' Palace, 1847-48; 41 Nevsky Prospect; Nikolaevsky Palace, 1853-61; 4 Truda Square; Mariinsky Palace, 1839-44; 6 St. Isaac Square). Among the adherents of Neo-Renaissance, were such architects as N.E. Efimov (houses of the Ministry of State Properties, 1844-53; 4 and 13 St. Isaac Square), A.I. Krakau (The Baltic Railway Station, 120 Obvodny Canal Embankment; the mansion of the Baron A.L. Stieglitz, 1859-63; 68 Angliiskaya Embankment), G.A. Bosse (Pashkov's house, 1841-44; 39 Liteiny Avenue; the mansion of V. Kochubey, 1844-46; 30 Tchaikovskogo Street). The latter elaborated the new methods of free planning and picturesque-asymmetric composition more consistently (his private mansion, 1847-49; 15 Fourth Line of Vasilievsky Island). A number of interesting examples of stylized Gothic motifs were created by N.L. Benois in Peterhof (the building of the railway station, 1854-57, palace stables, 1848-55). A special place in the historical style occupies the Neobyzantine style, originated in 1830s by architect K.A. Ton, who recreated the motifs of Muscovite architecture of the 15th-17th centuries in church construction. The architect N.E. Efimov (the Novodevichy (St. Mary) Convent Ensemble, 1849-61; 100 Moskovsky Avenue). Contrary to the official academic trend of the Russian style, its individual variation was developed in the works of architect A.M. Gornostaev (the Metochion of Holy Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, 1856-57; 44 Fontanka River Embankment). Masters of the historical style had a gradually growing tendency for the degradation of forms, equivalence of parts and elements, over-saturation of the surface with decor, mostly expressed in the architecture of the 1870s-90s. Often, the elements of different historical styles of the same composition and the same facade were joined and arbitrarily reproduced in an elaborated split rendered finish, which had nothing to do with the inner structure of the building. Standing out against such a background, the palaces of Grand Princes and the Museum of the Technical Drawing School of Baron A.I. Stieglitz (1885-96; 15 Solyanoy Lane) erected by the architect M.E. Messmacher as a Neo-Renaissance piece, are distinguished by their grandeur. The architect P.Y. Suzor and his followers elaborated the new type of apartment house, with wide showcase windows on the first floor, large bay windows and corner towers, which set the trend for structure and scale in residential construction (the house of Y.V. Ratkov-Rozhnov, 1898-1900; 13-15 Pestelya Street; the house of A.V. Ratkov-Rozhnov, 1899-1900; 32-34 Kirochnaya Street, both designed by architect P.Y. Suzor). The rational alternative to the outer decorativeness of the historical style was represented by the "brick style", mostly used by the architects I.S. Kitner and V.A. Schreter. The latter was also known as a theatre and bank builder. Adherents of the "brick style" striving for veracity and economy, rejected "plaster cosmetics" leaving the exposed brick layer or using durable ceramic facings (house and factory of A.I. Nissen, 1872-73; 183 Fontanka River Embankment; the house of V.F. Strauss, 1873-74; 9 Second Line of Vasilievsky Island; both designed by the architects I.S. Kitner, V.A. Schreter). During the period when the historical style dominated, various engineering and technical inventions were introduced to construction; above all, metallic, and then cast-iron constructions, however, they usually exerted no influence on the artistic image of the building and remained on the backstage of architecture.

References: Борисова Е. А. Русская архитектура второй половины XIX века. М., 1979; Пунин А. Л. Архитектурные памятники Петербурга: Вторая половина XIX в. Л., 1981; Его же. Архитектура Петербурга середины XIX века. Л., 1990; Кириченко Е. И. Русская архитектура 1830-1910-х годов. 2-е изд., испр. и доп. М., 1982; Историзм в России: Стиль и эпоха в декоративном искусстве, 1820-1890 гг.: Кат. выст. / Гос. Эрмитаж. СПб., 1996.

Б. М. Кириков.

Persons
Benois Nikolay Leontievich
Bosse G.A. (see Bosse Yu.A.)
Bryullov Boris Pavlovich
Efimov Nikolay Efimovich
Gornostaev Alexey Maximovich
Kitner Ieronim Sevastianovich
Kochubey Mikhail Viktorovich, Duke
Krakau Georg Alexander (Alexander Ivanovich)
Menelas Adam Adamovich
Messmacher Maximilian Egorovich
Nissen Andrey Ivanovich
Ratkov-Rozhnov Anany Vladimirovich
Ratkov-Rozhnov Yakov Vladimirovich
Schreter Viktor Alexandrovich
Stakensсhneider Andrey Ivanovich
Stieglitz Alexander Ludwigovich, Baron
Strauss V.F.
Suzor Pavel Yulievich
the Beloselsky-Belozerskys
Ton Konstantin Andreevich

Addresses
2nd Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 9
4th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 15
Angliiskaya Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 68
Fontanka River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 183
Fontanka River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 44
Kirochnaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 32
Kirochnaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 34
Liteiny Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 39
Moskovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 100
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 22
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 41
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 24
Obvodny Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 120
Pestelya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 15
Pestelya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 13
Solyanoy Lane/Saint Petersburg, city, house 15
St.Isaac's Square/Saint Petersburg, city, house 4
St.Isaac's Square/Saint Petersburg, city, house 13
St.Isaac's Square/Saint Petersburg, city, house 6
Tchaikovskogo St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 30
Truda Square/Saint Petersburg, city, house 4

Bibliographies
Борисова Е. А. Русская архитектура второй половины XIX века. М., 1979
Пунин А. Л. Архитектурные памятники Петербурга: Вторая половина XIX в. Л., 1981
Пунин А. Л. Архитектура Петербурга середины XIX века. Л., 1990
Зодчие Санкт-Петербурга, XIX – начало ХХ века. СПб., 1998
Кириченко Е. И. Русская архитектура 1830-1910-х годов. 2-е изд., испр. и доп. М., 1982
Историзм в России: Стиль и эпоха в декоративном искусстве, 1820 - 1890 гг.: Кат. выст. / Гос. Эрмитаж. СПб., 1996

The subject Index
St. Peter’s Lutheran Church
Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace
Nikolaevsky Palace (Palace of Labour)
Mariinsky Palace
Baltiysky Railway Station
Pashkov House (Liteiny Avenue)
Novodevichy Convent
Stieglitz Central Technical Drawing School


Architectural Styles (entry)

ARCHITECTURAL STYLES, recognizable systems of architectural compositional techniques, forms and decor, whose differences are caused by social and cultural environment, aesthetic preferences and the type of architectural culture of a particular epoch

Dmitriev N.V. (1856-1918), arhcitect

DMITRIEV Nikolay Vsevolodovich (1856-1918), architect. Graduated from the Construction School (1876). In 1885-1903, he worked as an architect for the Gatchina Palace Administration and for the town of Gatchina

Kitner I.S., (1839-1929), architect

KITNER Ieronim Sevastyanovich (1839, St. Petersburg - 1929), architect, member of the Academy of Architecture (1867), honorary member of Academy of Fine Arts (1911)

Krakau A.I. (1817-1888), architect

KRAKAU Georg Alexander (Alexander Ivanovich) (1817-1888), architect, representative of the Academic School, one of the most influential experts on eclecticism. In 1826-39, he studied at the Academy of Arts

Monighetti I.A. (1819-1878), architect

MONIGHETTI Ippolit Antonovich (1819-1878, St. Petersburg), architect, aquarellist, teacher, associate academy member (1847), professor (1858), court architect (1860)

Pashkov House (Liteiny Avenue)

PASHKOV HOUSE (House of Lands Department, 39 Liteiny Avenue), an architectural monument of Eclecticism. It was constructed in 1841-1844 by architect G.A. Bosse in the style of the Italian Renaissance

Pehl A. K. (1809-1902), architect

PEHL Alexander Khristoforovich (1809, St. Petersburg 1902, ibidem), architect. Graduated from the Academy of Arts (1833), associate academy member of architecture (1847), adherent of late Neoclassicism and Eclecticism. Assisted architect А.А

Polovtsov, House of

POLOVTSOV HOUSE (52 Bolshaya Morskaya Street), an architectural monument of Neoclassicism and Eclecticism. Since the 1710s the site belonged to chancellor G.I. Golovkin, whose son built a manor on it. In 1804, the house was bought by Count P.I

Rachau K.K., (1830-1880), architect

RACHAU Karl Karlovich (1830 - 1880, St. Petersburg), architect, one of the prominent representatives of St. Petersburg Eclectism, master of interiors, accentuating small forms and an architectural scholar

St. George Church

ST. GEORGE CHURCH, Church of the Great Holy Martyr George the Victory-Bearer at 3 Moskovskoe Highway. A monument commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the victory of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45; construction was paid for by donations of

Stakensсhneider А.I. (1802-1865), architect

STAKENSCHNEIDER Andrey Ivanovich (1802-1865), architect and graphic artist (draughtsman), full privy counsellor (1858). Graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts (1821); from 1834, associate academy member, honorary member of the Academy of Fine Arts