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The subject index / Kunstkammer


Categories / Science. Education/Museums
Categories / Architecture/Architectural Monuments/Public Buildings and Edifices

KUNSTKAMMER (from German "Kunstkammer" - "chambers of curiosities, museum") (3 Universitetskaya Embankment). The oldest museum in Russia, was founded in 1714 based on the private collections of Peter the Great, acquired during his travels around Western Europe (were assembled in the Summer Palace of Peter the Great). The Kunstkammer collections were constantly enriched with items from Russia and abroad, since 1719 they were exhibited in the Kikiny Palaty and open to public viewing. In 1724, Kunstkammer became a part of the Academy of Science and was turned into a museum complex, where the collections of minerals, numerous anatomical anomalies, animals and birds' skeletons, works of art and weapons were housed; after the death of Peter the Great, a memorial collection was added (today in the State Hermitage). Since 1727, the Kunstkammer was quartered in a specially constructed building (1718-34, architects G. Mattarnovi, N.F. Gerbel, G. Chiaveri, M. G. Zemtsov). Following a fire in 1754-58, the building was reconstructed by architect S.I. Chevakinsky. It consists of two practically identical wings joined by a central building crowned with a multi-tiered tower finished of with an armillary dome. The tower and the central part of the building housed an observatory and a dissecting room; in the round hall of the third floor the Gottorpsky globe was placed. The interiors are adorned with sculptural compositions and busts of outstanding scientists. M.V. Lomonosov, P.S. Pallas, V.M. Severgin and other scientists worked at Kunstkammer. In the 1830s, Kunstkammer was divided into several museums: Zoological, Ethnographical, Botanical and Mineralogical. Today Kunstkammer houses the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography and the Memorial Museum of M.V. Lomonosov.

References: Карпеев Э. П., Шафрановская Т. К. Кунсткамера. СПб., 1996; Петр I и Голландия: Рус.-голланд. науч. и худож. связи в эпоху Петра Великого: Сб. науч. тр. СПб., 1997; Моисеева Т. М. Петровская Кунсткамера в контексте западноевропейских музеев ХVI-XVIII вв. // 285 лет петербургской Кунсткамере. СПб., 2000. С. 24-34. (Сб. Музея антропологии и этнографии им. Петра Великого; Т. 48).

O. A. Chekanova.

Chiaveri Gaetano
Gerbel Nikolay Fedorovich
Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilievich
Mattarnovi Georg Iogann
Pallas Peter Simon
Peter I, Emperor
Severgin Vasily Mikhailovich
Zemtsov Mikhail Grigorievich

Universitetskaya Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 3

The subject Index
Kikiny Palaty (Kikin's Chambers)
Russian Academy of Sciences
Gottorp Globe
Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography
Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography
M. V. Lomonosov Museum


Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences

ARCHIVE OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, also known as the St. Petersburg Department (1 Universitetskaya Embankment) was the first scientific archive in Russia

Blumentrost L. L. (1692-1755), court physician, first President of the Petersburg Academy of Science

BLUMENTROST Lavrenty Lavrentievich (1692-1755, St. Petersburg), court physician, first President of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He studied at the Universities of Halle, Oxford, and Leiden and earned the degree of Doctor of Medicine (1713)

Bolshaya Neva

BOLSHAYA NEVA, the largest left branch of the the Neva river delta; a continuation of the Neva River below the Dvortsovaya Bridge. The Bolshaya Neva flows into the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, in the area surrounded by Vasilievsky Island

Book Trade (entry)

BOOK TRADE. State, institutional and private book trading has been carried out in St. Petersburg since the first years of its existence. The first official bookshop belonged to the St

Chevakinsky S. I. (1713-1783), architect

CHEVAKINSKY Savva Ivanovich (1713-1783), architect, representative of the Baroque. From 1729, studied at the Moscow Preparatory School of the St. Petersburg Naval Academy, in 1732-38 apprenticed in architecture with I.K

City Archaeology

CITY ARCHAEOLOGY. A branch of archaeological research, developed in St. Petersburg (Leningrad) from the middle of the 20th century. Archaeological research in the city started with archaeological excavations conducted in 1952 by archaeologist A.D

Gottorp Globe

GOTTORP GLOBE, a unique planetarium globe - a hollow rotating sphere over 3.1 metres in diameter with the Earth surface pictured on the outside and a celestial map on the inside of the sphere

Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Branch

INSTITUTE OF ORIENTAL STUDIES of the Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Branch, situated at 18 Palace Square, one of the world's centres of oriental studies. It was founded as the Asian Museum on the basis of Kunstkammer's Oriental Chamber in 1818

Kikiny Palaty (Kikin's Chambers)

KIKINY PALATY (Kikin's Chambers) (9 Stavropolskaya Street), an architectural monument of the Petrine Baroque. Constructed in 1714-20 (architect A. Schluter) for the Admiralty Councillor A.V

Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences

LIBRARY OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (BAN) (1 Birzhevaya Line), founded in 1714 by the decree of Peter the Great as His Majesty’s Library (also called public and state library)

M. V. Lomonosov Museum

M. V. LOMONOSOV MUSEUM (3 University Embankment) opened in 1949 within the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (becoming a branch of the museum in 1994) in the Kunstkammer building, where in 1741-65 M. V

Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography

MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY (Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Kunstkammer) (MAE) (3 University Embankment)

Museum of Zoology

MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY of the Institute of Zoology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1 University Embankment), Russia's largest museum of its type. Founded in 1832 it first welcomed visitors in 1838

Museums (general article)

MUSEUMS. Russia's first public museums appeared in St. Petersburg. In 1702 Peter the Great issued first orders on collecting and exhibiting high-quality models and various rarities

Patronage of Art (entry)

PATRONAGE OF ART is disinterested financial and other forms of participation in the culture, science, and assistance to figures of science and culture. The beginning for patronage of art in St

Peter the Great (1672-1725), Emperor

Peter the Great (Peter I) (b. 1672, d. 1725 in St. Petersburg), Tsar (from 1682) and Emperor (from 1721) of Russia, founder of St. Petersburg. Peter was the son of Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich (born from his second marriage) and N. K. Naryshkina

Postwar Restoration of Architectural Monuments

POSTWAR RESTORATION OF ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS. During the Siege of 1941-44, 187 of 210 buildings registered by the government as architectural monuments suffered from bombardment, suburban palaces-museums (except for Oranienbaum) were ruined

Russian Academy of Sciences

RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, the highest scientific institution in Russia. It was founded in St. Petersburg after Emperor Peter the Great's project for the academy was approved by the Senate on 28 January 1724

Spit of Vasilievsky Island

SPIT OF VASILIEVSKY ISLAND, a cape in the eastern part of Vasilievsky Island, washed by the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva rivers, the highest part of the island and one of the main architectural ensembles of St. Petersburg. Built to architect D

Tozelli А., (?-1826 or 1827), artist

TOZELLI Angelo (? - 1826 or 1827), architect and painter. An emigrant from Italy, he came to St. Petersburg in 1816. While here, he worked as a scene painter for the Imperial Theatres. He was the painter of the unique St

Universitetskaya Embankment

UNIVERSITETSKAYA EMBANKMENT (prior the end of the 18th century, Kadetskaya Embankment, until 1887 - Bolshaya Neva River Embankment), is situated on the right bank of the Bolshaya Neva, between Birzhevaya Square and Sixth Line of Vasilievsky Island

Vasileostrovsky District

VASILEOSTROVSKY DISTRICT is an administrative territorial unit of St. Petersburg. (Its territory administration is located at 55 Bolshoy Avenue of Vasilievsky Island) Its present-day borders were formed in 1917 (the western part was a separate

Vasilievsky Island

VASILIEVSKY ISLAND, the largest island in the estuary of the Neva 1,090 hectares in area. The island is washed by the Bolshaya Neva in the south and the Malaya Neva in the northeast

Zemtsov M.G. (1688-1743), architect.

ZEMTSOV Mikhail Grigoryevich (1688-1743, St. Petersburg), architect, graphic artist, theorist of architecture, representative of the early Baroque. He studied at the Armoury Printing House School in Moscow. He worked in St