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The subject index / Alexandrinsky Theatre

Alexandrinsky Theatre

Categories / Art/Music, Theatre/Theaters, Concert Organizations

ALEXANDRINSKY THEATRE (2 Ostrovskogo Square), called Alexandrinsky Theatre 1832-1920, it was granted the status of Academic in 1919, and in 1920 named the Petrograd (Leningrad) State Academic Drama Theatre (Akdrama, Gosdrama). In 1937 it was named after Alexander Pushkin, and since 1991 has been the Russian State Academic Drama Theatre also named after Alexander Pushkin (Alexandrinsky Theatre). The theatre's history dates back to 1756 (see Russian Theatre for Tragedy and Comedy Performances) and to the decree of 1759, according to which the Russian Imperial Court Troupe was established (later it performed on the stages of the Imperial Theatres). Principal actors of the 18th - early 19th centuries included F.G. Volkov, I.A. Dmitrevsky, Y.D. Shumsky, T.M. Troepolskaya, P.A. Plavilshchikov, S.N. Sandunov, A.M. Krutitsky, Y.E. Shusherin, A.S. Yakovlev, V.F. Rykalov, E.S. Semenova, Y.G. Bryansky, V.A. Karatygin and I.I. Sosnitsky. Beginning in 1832, the Alexandrinsky Theatre, named in honour of Emperor Nicholas I' wife Alexandra Fedorovna, was the main stage of the Petersburg Imperial Drama Company. Originally, operas were staged along with theatre performances, and quite regularly a German troupe or guest actors would perform. In the 19th century Alexandrinsky Theatre Company boasted such actors as N.O. Dyur, V.N. Asenkova, V.V. Samoylov, A.E. Martynov, V.V. Samoylova, P.V. Vasilyev, V.V. Strelskaya, N.F. Sazonov, M.G. Savina, K.A. Varlamov, V.N. Davydov, P.A. Strepetova, R.B. Apollonsky, V.P. Dalmatov, M.I. Pisarev, V.A. Michurina-Samoilova, M.V. Dalsky, Y.M. Yuryev, V.F. Komissarzhevskaya, and N.N. Khodotov. A great respect for the stage was always a characteristic feature of the Alexandrinsky Theatre's mastery of performance. Its repertoire included both classic and modern Russian and European works of all genres. Many plays that became Russian classics were performed for the first time in the Alexandrinsky Theatre, like N.V. Gogol's The Inspector General (1836), Alexander Pushkin's The Stone Guest (1847) and The Miserly Knight (1852), M.Y. Lermontov's Masquerade (1852), and many others. Comedy and vaudeville, which contributed to the perfection of a versatile acting technique, also occupied an important place in the repertoire. One playwright who appeared most in the theatre's repertoire of the second half of the 19th century is A. N. Ostrovsky. At the turn of 19-20th centuries, a number of reforms were undertaken under the guidance of S.M. Volkonsky and V.A. Telyakovsky, directors of the Imperial Court Theatres, who together developed the New Drama with stronger directors (E.P. Karpov, Y.E. Ozarovsky, A.A. Sanin, A.N. Lavrentyev, N.V. Petrov, A.L. Zagarov, Y.L. Rakitin), renewed design principles (with artists from the World of Art Association), creation of a stylistic unity between productions, and involving performers with new stage specialisations. The theatre's creative achievement of that period came in large part due to its director, V.E. Meyerhold, who staged 20 plays there, and his collaboration with artist/painter A.Y. Golovin, their best-known productions including Don Juan by J.-B. Moliere (1910), The Storm by A.N. Ostrovsky (1916), and Lermontov's Masquerade (1917). During the early 20th century the Alexandrinsky Theatre Company boasted the following actors: P.V. Samoylov, K.N. Yakovlev, E.I. Time, B.A Gorin-Goryainov, L.S. Vivien, E. N. Roshchina-Insarova, Y.O. Malyutin, and E.P. Korchagina-Alexandrovskaya. Under artistic director Yuryev (1922-28), the theatre presented productions of young prominent directors, among them Petrov (general manager and artistic director in 1928-32), S.E. Radlov (artistic director in 1936-38), Vivien (artistic director in 1938-66), and K.P. Khokhlov; and artists V.V. Dmitriev, N.P. Akimov, M.Z. Levin, B.M. Erbstein, and I.M. Rabinovich. In 1924 Akdrama founded a theatre-studio to train the next generation of actors. Soviet drama dominated Petrov's repertoire (Armoured Train 14-69 by V.V. Ivanov, A Crank and Fear by A.N. Afinogenov). In the 1930-40s, B.M. Sushkevich (artistic director, 1932-36), V.P. Kozhich, B.A. Babochkin, N.S. Rashevskaya, A.A. Muzil, G.M. Kozintsev, and others enriched the list of directors associated with the Alexandrinsky Theatre. Pushkin's Boris Godunov (1934), Ostrovsky's The Forest (1936), Peter I (1938) based on A.N. Tolstoy's book and many other performances became the highlights of the Alexandrinsky Theatre in the 1930s. The company included V.L. Yureneva, Rashevskaya, N.K. Simonov, E.M. Wolf-Izrael, I.N. Pevtsov, K.I. Adashevsky, Babochkin, A.F. Borisov, N.K. Cherkasov, K.V. Skorobogatov, V.V. Merkuryev, Y.V. Tolubeev, O.Y. Lebzak, Y.O. Malyutin, and B.A. Freindlikh. In 1941 the theatre was evacuated to Novosibirsk, resuming its place in Leningrad in 1944. The best-known productions of the 1950-70s included Leo Tolstoy's The Living Corpse (staged by Kozhich and A.N. Dauson, 1950), W. Shakespeare's Hamlet (staged by Kozintsev, 1954), V.V. Vishnevsky's Optimistic Tragedy (staged by G.A. Tovstonogov, 1955), M. Gorky's The Lower Depths (staged by Vivien and V.V. Erenberg, 1956), M.A. Bulgakov's Flight, Alexander Pushkin's Little Tragedies (staged by Vivien, 1958, 1962), B. Brecht's The Good Person of Setzuan (staged by R.R. Suslovich, 1962), G. Hauptmann's Before Sunset (staged by Muzil, 1963), Y.M. Svirin's Autumn in Boldino and A.P. Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard (staged by R.A. Goryaev, 1969, 1972), C. Gozzi's The Green Bird (staged by N.M. Sheyko, 1976), Gorky's Children of the Sun, and Chekhov's Ivanov (staged by A.O. Sagalchik, 1976, 1978). Actors V.I. Chestnokov, I.O. Gorbachev (artistic director of the theatre, 1975-91), N.V. Mamaeva, N.N. Urgant, L.A. Chursina, and G.T. Karelina joined the company of the Alexandrinsky Theatre. In 1956-64, A.F. Bosulaev was the theatre's main actor, succeeded by M.F. Kitaev in 1973-90. The theatre's Literary Studies Department, which functioned in the 1930s was reinstated in the 1990s. The department was involved in research, publishing, and festival activities (The Flight of the Seagull International Conference of 1996, conferences dedicated to the works of A.P. Sumarokov, Meyerhold, Yuryev, Vivien and Simonov; workshops of the modern Russian and foreign drama etc.) In 1996 a series of books called the Library of the Alexandrinsky Theatre was published. Actors experimented on the Small Stage of the theatre (The attic of the Alexandrinsky). The theatre currently engages the following directors: V.E. Vorobyev, A.A. Praudin, A.V. Galibin, G.M. Kozlov, R.V. Smirnov, G.R. Trostyanetsky, and V.V. Fokin. As of 2003, the company includes S.I. Parshin, N.S. Marton, V.F. Smirnov, K.A. Petrova, S.S. Smirnova, N.V. Burov, A.L. Bargman, A.V. Devotchenko, I.N. Volkov, N.V. Panina, and E.K. Zimina. In 1991-2003 G.A. Sashchenko was the theatre's general manager and artistic director, and since 2003 V.V. Fokin its artistic director and A.V. Galibin its main director. The building of the Alexandrinsky Theatre (constructed in 1828-32) is one of the best examples of Petersburg Classicism, and is at the centre of a grandiose architectural ensemble created by architect C.I. Rossi (Alexandrinskaya Square, today Ostrovskogo Square, Zodchego Rossi Street, Lomonosova Square). The main facade is decorated with a gallery of six Corinthian columns crowned with an attic of moulded reliefs and an Apollo wheel (sculptor S.S. Pimenov). Bays on the sides of the main facade contain sculptures of Terpsihore and Melpomene, and at the back one of Clio and Thalia (restored in 1932 sculptor I.V. Krestovsky). The sides are adorned with 8-columned porticoes. The hall features 1102 seats.

References: Альтшуллер А. Я. Театр прославленных мастеров: Очерки истории Александрин. сцены. Л., 1968; Ленинградский государственный ... академический театр драмы им. А. С. Пушкина. Л., 1983.

A. A. Kirillov.

Abamelik-Lazarev Semen Semenovich
Adashevsky Konstantin Ignatievich
Afinogenov Alexander Nikolaevich
Akimov Nikolay Pavlovich
Alexandra Fedorovna, Empress
Apollonsky Roman Borisovich
Asenkova Varvara Nikolaevna
Babochkin Boris Andreevich
Bargman Alexander Lvovich
Borisov Alexander Fedorovich
Bosulaev Anatoly Fedotovich
Brecht Bertolt
Bryansky Yakov Grigorievich
Bulgakov Mikhail Afanasievich
Burov Nikolay Vitalievich
Chekhov Anton Pavlovich
Cherkasov Nikolay Konstantinovich
Chestnokov Vladimir Ivanovich
Chursina Lyudmila Alexeevna
Dalmatov Vasily Panteleimonovich
Dalsky (Neelov) Mamont Viktorovich
Dauson Antonin N.
Davydov Vladimir Nikolaevich
Devotchenko Alexey Valerievich
Dmitrevsky (real name Narykov) Ivan Afanasievich
Dmitriev Vladimir Vladimirovich
Dyur Nikolay Osipovich
Erbstein Boris Mikhailovich
Erenberg Vladimir Vladimirovich
Fokin Valery Vladimirovich
Freindlikh Bruno Arturovich
Galibin Alexander Vladimirovich
Gogol Nikolay Vasilievich
Golovin Alexander Yakovlevich
Gorbachev Igor Olegovich
Gorin-Goryainov Boris Anatolievich
Gorky Maxim (Alexey Maximovich Peshkov)
Goryaev Rostislav Arkadievich
Gozzi Carlo
Hauptmann Gerhard
Ivanov Vsevolod Vyacheslavovich
Karatygin Vasily Andreevich
Karelina Galina Timofeevna
Karpov Evtikhy Pavlovich
Khodotov Nikolay Nikolaevich
Khokhlov Konstantin Pavlovich
Kitaev Mart Frolovich
Komissarzhevskaya Vera Fedorovna
Korchagina-Alexandrovskaya Ekaterina Pavlovna
Kozhich Vladimir Platonovich
Kozintsev Grigory Mikhailovich
Kozlov Ivan Ivanovich
Krestovsky Igor Vsevolodovich
Krutitsky Anton Mikhailovich
Lavrentyev Andrey Nikolaevich
Lebzak Olga Yakovlevna
Lermontov Mikhail Yurievich
Levin Moisey Zeligovich
Malyutin (real name Itin) Yakov Osipovich
Mamaeva Nina Vasilievna
Marton Nikolay Sergeevich
Martynov Andrey Efimovich
Merkuryev Vasily Vasilievich
Meyerhold Vsevolod Emilievich
Michurina-Samoilova Vera Arkadievna
Moliere Jean-Baptiste
Muzil Alexander Alexandrovich
Nicholas I, Emperor
Ostrovsky Alexander Nikolaevich
Ozarovsky Yury Erastovich
Panina Natalia Vadimovna
Parshin Sergey Ivanovich
Petrov Nikolay Vasilievich
Petrova (Kreylis) Kira Alexandrovna
Pevtsov Illarion Nikolaevich
Pimenov Stepan Stepanovich
Pisarev Modest Ivanovich
Plavilshchikov Peter Alexeevich
Praudin Anatoly Arkadievich
Pushkin Alexander Sergeevich
Rabinovich Isaac Moiseevich
Radlov Sergey Ernestovich
Rakitin Yury Lvovich
Rashevskaya Natalia Sergeevna
Roshchina-Insarova Ekaterina Nikolaevna
Rossi Carl Ivanovich (Carlo Giovanni)
Rykalov Vasily Fedotovich
Sagalchik Arseny Ovseevich
Samoylov Pavel Vasilievich
Samoylov Vasily Vasilievich
Samoylova Vera Vasilievna
Sandunov Sila Nikolaevich
Sanin (real name Shenberg) Alexander Akimovich
Sashchenko Georgy Alexandrovich
Savina Maria Gavrilovna
Sazonov Nikolay Fedorovich
Semenova Ekaterina Semenovna
Shakespeare William
Sheyko Nikolay Mikhailovich
Shumsky Yakov Danilovich
Shusherin Yakov Emelyanovich
Simonov Nikolay Konstantinovich
Skorobogatov Konstantin Vasilievich
Smirnov Roman Vladimirovich
Smirnov Viktor Fedorovich
Smirnova Svetlana Stanislavovna
Sosnitsky Ivan Ivanovich
Strelskaya Varvara Vasilievna
Strepetova Pelageya (Polina) Antipievna
Sumarokov Alexander Petrovich
Sushkevich Boris Mikhailovich
Suslovich Rafail Rafailovich
Telyakovsky Vladimir Arkadievich
Time Elizaveta Ivanovna
Tolstoy Alexey Nikolaevich
Tolubeev Yury Vladimirovich
Tovstonogov Georgy Alexandrovich
Troepolskaya Tatyana Mikhailovna
Trostyanetsky Gennady Rafailovich
Urgant Nina Nikolaevna
Varlamov Konstantin Alexandrovich
Vasilyev Pavel Vasilievich
Vishnevsky Vsevolod Vitalievich
Vivien Leonid Sergeevich
Volkonsky Sergey Mikhailovich, Duke
Volkov Fedor Grigorievich
Volkov Igor Nikolaevich
Vorobyev Vladimir Egorovich
Wolf-Izrael Evgenia Mikhailovna
Yakovlev Alexey Semenovich
Yakovlev Kondrat Nikolaevich
Yureneva Vera Leonidovna
Yuryev Yury Mikhailovich
Zagarov (real name Fessing) Alexander Leonidovich
Zimina Elena Konstantinovna

Lomonosova Square/Saint Petersburg, city
Ostrovsky Square/Saint Petersburg, city, house 2
Zodchego Rossi Street/Saint Petersburg, city

Альтшуллер А. Я. Театр прославленных мастеров: Очерки истории Александрин. сцены. Л., 1968
Ленинградский государственный ... академический театр драмы им. А. С. Пушкина. Л., 1983

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