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Entries / Gravestones (entry)

Gravestones (entry)

Categories / Architecture/Sculpture, Monuments
Categories / Architecture/Cemeteries (see also Municipal Economy)

GRAVESTONES. The Necropolis-Museum of the 18th Century preserves cast-iron gravestones of T.A. Litvinova, S.A. Apraxina, P.F. Balk-Polev, P.N. Melgunov and others (1730-50s) with typical epitaphs in ornamented frames with armour and heraldic symbols. In the 1760s, the first architectural gravestones appeared (one of the first was made in Karrara, with a marble stele of M.V. Lomonosov with reliefs symbolizing the arts and sciences). The prevalent type of gravestone was a slab made of stone or metal sometimes placed on a rectangular sarcophagus (gilded brazen bindings- slabs of the Sheremetevs, 1780s, craftsman I. Prausenberger; Lazarevskaya Burial Vault). The Neoclassical epoch is characterized with a variety of gravestones' architectural forms: altars, pylons, obelisks, columns and pyramids. The sculptural decor was essential. Symbols of virtue, glory; the soul, life and death were extensively used in reliefs and round sculptures. The architectural composition often comprised of either a portrait bust or a medallion. Epitaphs told civil merits of the deceased, reported his ranks and rewards. Often epitaphs written in verse were didactic, detailed texts told about the grief of the bereaved family (that was illustrated with corresponding reliefs). The first St. Petersburg sample of a "gala" Gravestone with symbolic sculptures was created by F.G. Gordeev (the monument to Prince A.M. Golitsyn, 1788; Blagoveschenskaya Burial Vault). M.I. Kozlovsky, I.P. Martos, V.I. Demut-Malinovsky and other masters worked In the style of the memorial sculpture. There were numerous "monument" workshops, specializing in Gravestone production (Y.Semmelgack, A. Triscorni, E. Tropin, A. Permagorov and others). In the second part of the 19th - early 20th century religious symbolism predominated in gravestone decorations. On family grounds of the St. Petersburg of wealthy cemeteries chapel-crypts were erected (of M.N. Muravyev at Lazarevskoe Cemetery, 1868, architect A.I. Rezanov; of A.D. Vyaltseva at Nikolskoe Cemetery, 1915, architect L.A. Ilyin). A so-called Russian style was introduced into gravestones typology (Gravestone of M.P. Musorgsky, 1885, architects I.S. Bogomolov; V.V. Stasova, 1908, architect I.P. Ropet). Memorial portraits proliferated (V.A. Karatygin, 1854, sculptor A.I. Terebenev; F.M. Dostoevsky, 1883, sculptor N.A. Laveretsky; G.I. Uspensky, 1904-06, sculptor L.V. Shervud). In the 20th century, the figurative decor of gravestones was minimized. The form of a stele with a portrait predominated, epitaphs were brief and decor included mainly emblems, connected with ones profession. The official gravestones of the Soviet times exaggeratedly lacked sacral symbolism. Some sculptural portraits attract attention through their sharpness and psychologism (N.K. Cherkasov, 1973, sculptor M.K. Anikushin - in the Artists Necropolis; I.A. Orbeli, 1963; E.A. Mravinsky, 1990, sculptor L.K. Lazarev – at Bogoslovskoe Cemetery). For ordinary gravestones concrete shells are most typical, they were finished with crosses even in the Soviet period.

References: Пирютко Ю. М. Надгробные памятники: стиль, мастера, заказчики // Исторические кладбища Петербурга: Справ.-путеводитель. СПб., 1993. С. 60-95.

Y. M. Piryutko.

Anikushin Mikhail Konstantinovich
Apraksin Semen Fedorovich
Balk-Polev Peter Fedorovich
Bogomolov Ivan Semenovich
Cherkasov Nikolay Konstantinovich
Demut-Malinovsky Vasily Ivanovich
Dostoevsky Fedor Mikhailovich
Golitsyn Alexander Mikhailovich, Duke
Gordeev Fedor Gordeevich
Ilyin Lev Alexandrovich
Karatygin Vasily Andreevich
Kozlovsky Mikhail Ivanovich
Laveretsky Nikolay Akimovich
Lazarev Levon Konstantinovich
Litvinova Tatyana Afanasievna
Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilievich
Martos Ivan Petrovich
Melgunov Peter Naumovich
Mravinsky Evgeny Alexandrovich
Muravyev Mikhail Nikitich
Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich
Orbeli Iosif Abgarovich
Permagorov A.M.
Prausenberger Johann Christian
Rezanov Alexander Ivanovich
Ropet Ivan Pavlovich (real name Petrov Ivan Nikolaevich)
Shervud Leonid Vladimirovich
Stasov Vladimir Vasilievich
the Sheremetevs
the Terebenevs
Triscorni Agostino
Tropin Efim Mikheevich
Uspensky Gleb Ivanovich
Vyaltseva Anastasiya Dmitrievna
Zemelgak Yakov Ivanovich

Пирютко Ю. М. Надгробные памятники: стиль, мастера, заказчики // Исторические кладбища Петербурга: Справ.-путеводитель. СПб., 1993

The subject Index
Lazarevskaya Burial Vault
Blagoveschenskaya (Holy Annunciation) Burial Vault
Lazarevskaya Burial Vault
Nikolskoe Cemetery
Necropolis of Artists
Bogoslovskoe Cemetery