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Entries / Moika, river

Moika, river


Categories / City Topography/Urban Network/Embankments
Categories / City Topography/Waterways and Currents/Rivers

MOIKA (the original name Mya; known as Muya until the early 18th century, derived from the Izhora word for "slush, mire"), a river in the Neva river delta. The Moika River is 4.67 kilometres long, with a width of up to 40 metres. The river head is drawn from the Fontanka River beside the Summer Garden. In the early 18th century it used to flow from a marsh situated near the Field of Mars. The river flows into the Bolshaya Neva. Winter Canal and Lebyazhy Canal run off from the Moika River; these channels connect the river with the Bolshaya Neva. In 1720, wooden embankments were set up on the Moika, while in 1736-37 the bottom of the river was deepened. In 1798-1811, granite embankments were constructed along the length of the river from the Fontanka to Angliisky Avenue (on the left bank) and Kryukov Canal (on the right bank). In 1960, granite terraces were built near Mikhaylovsky Garden, in 1975 an embankment running from Angliisky Avenue to the Pryazhka River was constructed. Altogether, 14 bridges span the Moika River. The following bridges were built after the project plan of engineer V.I. Hastie: Narodny Bridge (1808), Krasny Bridge (1814), Potseluev Bridge (1816) and Siny Bridge (1818; rebuilt in 1843 by engineer E.A. Adam), while Bolshoy Konyushenny Bridge (1828) and Pevchesky Bridge (1840) were built to the designs of engineer E.A. Adam. One of the first major buildings of the embankments of the Moika River was the building of Stables Department (house No. 6, 1720-23, architect N.F. Gerbel; rebuilt in 1810 by architect L.Rusca and in 1817-23 by architect V.P. Stasov). The following buildings were constructed from the mid-18th century to the second half of the 18th century: Stegelman"s house (house No. 50, building No. 2), Stroganov Palace (house No. 46/17), Razumovsky Palace (house No. 48), Yusupov Palace (house No. 94) and the timber depots of Novaya Gollandiya. In the 1800s, the house of Count A.A. Arakcheev was erected at the corner of Winter Canal to the plans of architect F.I. Demertsov. The area of the present-day house No. 20 belonged to architect Y.M. Velten since 1773. In 1808, court choristers were lodged here. In 1886-89, architect L.N. Benois performed the complete reconstruction of the building for the Capella. The lot of house No. 40 was occupied by a theatre between 1723-33; later Demutov Inn was situated here. In the 19th century the embankments of the Moika were built up with more houses: No. 64 (1881, architect A.R. Geschwend), No. 71 (1870s, architect Geschwend), No. 73 (1840s, architect G.A. Bosse), No. 79 (1858, architects A.K. Cavos, E.I. Ferri-de-Pigni), No. 82 together with M.S. Voronin"s bath-houses (the 1870s, architect P.Y. Suzor) and No. 84 (the 1860s, architect N.L. Benois). The house No. 83 (rebuilt in 1878 by architect M.E. Messmacher) is occupied by the St. Petersburg Association of the Artists" Union. House No. 122 (1880s, architect Messmacher) used to belong to Grand Duke Alexey Alexandrovich, the uncle of Emperor Nicholas II. In the early 20th century, 27 buildings out of 116, built on Moika Embankment, were occupied by ministries, six houses belonged to churches, 25 houses were occupied by banks and joint-stock companies, and 19 houses belonged to aristocrats. House No. 23 (1913-15, architect I.A. Fomin), which used to belong to Prince S.S. Abamelik-Lazarev, is worthy of mention. Alexander Pushkin lived in house No. 12 from the autumn of 1836 until his death on January 29 1837. In 1925, the poet"s memorial flat was established here. House No. 14 witnessed the childhood of I.I. Puschin. The schoolmate of Alexander Pushkin, Baron M.A. Korf, used to live in house No. 18 in 1837, while the house No. 15 (1858, architect A.C. Kolb) was occupied by Prince P.A. Vyazemsky in the 1860s. Ossetian poet K. Khetagurov lived in the house No. 17 (1882, architect A.V. Ivanov) in the 1880s, M.E. Saltykov-Schedrin lived in the house No. 8 in 1845, while writer Y.P. German lived at house 25 from 1936 to 1948. House No. 24 accommodated the editorial board of the Apollon journal in the early 20th century. The house No. 67 was the residence of Ministers of War V.A. Sukhomlinov (1900-15) and A.A. Polivanov (1915-16). House No. 83, which belonged to vice-president of the Palace Chancellery I.P. Elagin, is associated with the name of D.I. Fonvizin. Here Count Caliostro also stayed during his visit to Russia. P.I. Tchaikovsky stayed in the Russia Hotel (house 60) in 1893. In 1862, the St. Petersburg Conservatory was opened on the lot of the house No. 64. The new building constructed on this site was occupied by V.V. Andreev, the founder of Russian Folk Instruments Orchestra, from 1912 to 1918. Poet K.F. Ryleev lived in the house No. 72, and singer A.D. Vyaltseva occupied house No. 84.

References: Вяземский С. М. Набережные Мойки // БА. 1967. № 22-23; Жукова Е. Путешествие по набережной Мойки // Наука и жизнь. 1984. № 6. С. 48-53; Канн П. Я. Прогулки по Петербургу: Вдоль Мойки, Фонтанки, Садовой. Л., 1994. С. 127-280.

V. D. Privalov.

Persons
Abamelik-Lazarev Semen Semenovich
Adam Egor Andreevich
Alexey Alexandrovich, Grand Prince
Andreev Vasily Vasilievich
Arakcheev Alexey Andreevich
Benois Leonty Nikolaevich
Benois Nikolay Leontievich
Bosse G.A. (see Bosse Yu.A.)
Caliostro Alessandro
Cavos Albert Katarinovich
Demertsov Fedor Ivanovich
Elagin Ivan Perfilievich
Felten Yury (Georg Friedrich) Matveevich
Ferri-de-Pigni Evgeny Ippolitovich
Fomin Ivan Alexandrovich
Fonvizin Denis Ivanovich
Gerbel Nikolay Fedorovich
German Yury Pavlovich
Geschwend Alexander Romanovich
Hastie Vasily Ivanovich (William)
Ivanov Alexander Vasilievich
Khetagurov Kosta Levanovich
Kolb Alexander Christoforovich
Korf Modest Andreevich, Count
Messmacher Maximilian Egorovich
Nicholas II, Emperor
Polivanov Alexey Andreevich
Pushchin Ivan Ivanovich
Pushkin Alexander Sergeevich
Rusca Luigi (Aloisy Ivanovich)
Ryleev Kondraty Fedorovich
Saltykov-Shchedrin (real name Saltykov) Mikhail Evgrafovich
Stasov Vasily Petrovich
Stegelman
Sukhomlinov Vladimir Alexandrovich
Suzor Pavel Yulievich
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilyich
the Razumovskys
the Stroganovs
the Yusupovs, Dukes
Voronin Mikhail Stepanovich
Vyaltseva Anastasiya Dmitrievna
Vyazemsky Peter Andreevich, Duke

Addresses
Angliisky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city
Moika River/Saint Petersburg, city
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 67
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 60
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 6
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 46/17
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 50, litera корп. 2
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 71
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 73
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 79
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 12
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 18
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 17
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 8
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 14
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 122
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 72
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 83
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 94
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 48
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 25
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 15
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 23
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 40
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 86
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 20
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 84
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 82
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 24
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 64
The Field of Mars/Saint Petersburg, city

Bibliographies
Вяземский С. М. Набережные Мойки // Блокнот агитатора, 1967
Жукова Е. Путешествие по набережной Мойки // Наука и жизнь, 1984
Канн П. Я.. Прогулки по Петербургу: Вдоль Мойки, Фонтанки, Садовой. СПб., 1994

The subject Index
Field of Mars (Marsovo Pole), ensemble
Stegelman's House
Stroganov Palace
Razumovsky Palace
Yusupov Palace (94 Moika River Embankment)
Demoute's Traktir
Demoute's Traktir
Apollon (Apollo), journal
Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory

Chronograph
1798
1885