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Entries / Trubetskoy Bastion

Trubetskoy Bastion

Categories / City Administration/Police, Prisons

TRUBETSKOY BASTION, one of 6 bastions of Peter and Paul Fortress, situated in its south-western part. The bastion was built in 1703, of earth and wood under the supervision of prince Y.Y. Trubetskoy (hence the name), in 1709 it was rebuilt in stone; in 1785 the outer walls were faced with granite (memorial plaque). In 1718 tcarevitch Alexey Petrovich was imprisoned in one of the dungeons of Trubetskoy bastion. In the 18th century the dungeons of the bastion were mainly used for the needs of the Mint. In 1826 about 30 Decembrists were kept in the bastion (A.I. Borisov, A.F. Brigen, A.A. and N.A. Kryukovs, M.I. Muravyev-Apostol, A.V. Poggio, M.A. Fonvizin and others). In 1870 the inner earth-mounded walls and dungeons, together with one-storeyed stone Roundhouse in the inner yard of the bastion were demolished. By January of 1872 on their site, a 2-storeyed pentagonal (according to the design plan) building of the political remand prison was built (engineers K.P. Andreev, M.A. Pasypkin), containing 71 (since 1878 - 69) solitary cells and 2 punishment cells. On the 2nd floor, the prison warden's lodgings were situated. In the 1880s, Trubetskoy bastion kept prisoners sentenced to penal servitude along with detainees under investigation. By March of 1917, about 1,500 prisoners had passed through the prison of the bastion. In the 1870s, nearly 100 participants of "walking into common people" were kept here (P.I. Voynarovsky, prince P.A. Kropotkin, I.N. Myshkin, D.M. Rogachev, S.S. Sinegub, N.A. Charushin et al.), as were the members of Zemlya i volya organization, Narodnaya Volya organization (A.I. Zhelyabov, A.D. Mikhaylov, N.A. Morozov, V.N. Figner, M.F. Frolenko, A.V. Yakimova, G.A. Lopatin and others), the members of the terrorist faction of Narodnaya Volya (P.I. Andreyushkin, V.D. Generalov, V.S. Osipanov, A.I. Ulyanov, P.Y. Shevyrev and others), socialist democrats (N.E. Bauman, F.I. Dan, P.N. Lepeshinsky, A.N. Potresov, I.I. Radchenko, L.N. Stal and others), socialist-revolutionaries (S.V. Balmashev, E.K. Breshko-Breshkovskaya, I.P. Kalyaev, Z.V. Konoplyannikova, V.V. Lebedintsev, M.I. Sokolov and others), the members of other revolutionary parties and liberal movement, leaders of Petersburg Soviet of working people' deputies (G.A. Khrustalev-Nosar, L.D. Trotsky), the participants of 1905-07 Revolution, and of mass revolutionary demonstrations in the Army and the Navy, etc. In 1906-08 the prison warden's apartment was used for the courts martial sessions (28 persons were put to death pursuant to their sentences). After February Revolution of 1917, 11 former ministers of the tsar government were put into Trubetskoy bastion, together with the members of the secret police, the courtiers closest to Nicholas II and others (total 44 persons), the assemblies of the Extraordinary investigation commission of Provisional government also took place here. After October 1917, 18 members of the Provisional government were brought to Trubetskoy bastion, later they were joined by the participants of the military cadets' uprising, leaders of the Constitutional and democratic party (F.F. Kokoshkin, prince D.I. Shakhovskoy, A.I. Shingarev), the members of The Constituent Assembly defence league and others. On March 7, 1918 the people's commissar of justice issued the decree On the permanent abolishment of the prison of Trubetskoy bastion, but as of fall of 1918, the cells were filled up again, this time with the victims of the red terror (including Grand Dukes Georgy Mikhaylovich, Dmitry Konstantinovich, Nikolay Mikhaylovich and Pavel Alexandrovich, all of them executed by shooting on the night of January 28, 1919 in Peter and Paul Fortress). Since March 14, 1921 the participants of Kronstadt uprising of 1921 were kept in Trubetskoy bastion. In 1924 the former prison of the bastion was transformed into a museum.

References: Гернет М. Н. История царской тюрьмы. 3-е изд. М., 1961-1962. Т. 3-4; Записные книжки полковника Г. А. Иванишина // Минувшее: Ист. альм. М.; СПб., 1994. [Вып.] 17. С. 477-572; Барабанова А. И., Вершевская М. В., Тихонова Н. С. Тайны "русской Бастилии". СПб., 2000.

A. D. Margolis.

Aarne V.
Alexey Petrovich, Tsesarevitch
Andreev Konstantin Prokofievich
Andreyushkin Pakhomy Ivanovich
Balmashev Stepan Valerianovich
Bauman Nikolay Ernestovich
Borisov Andrey Ivanovich
Breshko-Breshkovskaya Ekaterina Konstantinovna
Brigen Alexander Fedorovich, von der
Charushin Nikolay Apollonovich
Dan Fedor Ilyich
Dmitry Konstantinovich, Grand Prince
Figner Vera Nikolaevna
Fonvizin Mikhail Alexandrovich
Frolenko Mikhail Fedorovich
Generalov Vasily Denisovich
Georgy Mikhailovich, Grand Prince
Kalyaev Ivan Platonovich
Khrustalev-Nosar Georgy Stepanovich
Kokoshkin Fedor Fedorovich
Konoplyannikova Zinaida Vasilievna
Kropotkin Peter Alexeevich, Duke
Kryukov Alexander Alexandrovich
Kryukov Nikolay Alexandrovich
Lebedintsev Vsevolod Vladimirovich
Lepeshinsky Panteleimon Nikolaevich
Lopatin German Alexandrovich
Mikhaylov Alexander Dmitrievich
Morozov Nikolay Alexandrovich
Muravyev-Apostol Matvey Ivanovich
Myshkin Ippolit Nikitich
Nicholas II, Emperor
Nikolay Mikhailovich, Grand Prince
Osipanov Vasily Stepanovich
Pasypkin Mikhail Alexandrovich
Pavel Alexandrovich, Grand Prince
Poggio Alexander Viktorovich
Potresov Alexander Nikolaevich
Radchenko Ivan Ivanovich
Rogachev Dmitry Mikhailovich
Shakhovskoy Dmitry Ivanovich, Duke
Shevyrev Peter Yakovlevich
Shingarev Andrey Ivanovich
Sinegub Sergey Silych
Sokolov Mikhail Ivanovich
Stal Lyudmila Nikolaevna
Trotsky (real name Bronstein) Lev Davidovich
Trubetskoy Yury Yurievich, Duke
Ulyanov Alexander Ilyich
Voinoralsky Porfiry Ivanovich
Yakimova Anna Vasilievna
Zhelyabov Andrey Ivanovich

Петропавловская крепость

Гернет М. Н. История царской тюрьмы. 3-е изд. М., 1961-1962
Барабанова А. И., Вершевская М. В., Тихонова Н. С. Тайны "русской Бастилии". СПб., 2000
Записные книжки полковника Г. А. Иванишина // Минувшее: Ист. альм. М.; СПб., 1994

The subject Index
St. Peter and Paul fortress
St. Peter and Paul fortress
St. Petersburg Mint
St. Petersburg Mint
Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) of 1860s
Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) of 1870s
Narodnaya Volya
Narodnaya Volya
Revolution of 1905-07
February Revolution of 1917
Provisional Government of 1917
Union for Constituent Assembly Protection
Red Terror
Kronstadt Rebellion of 1921


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