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Entries / Patronage of Art (entry)

Patronage of Art (entry)

Categories / Social Life/Charity

PATRONAGE OF ART is disinterested financial and other forms of participation in the culture, science, and assistance to figures of science and culture. The beginning for patronage of art in St. Petersburg was laid by Tsar Peter the Great who collected works of art and different rarities (creating Kunstkammer, the first Russian public museum in 1714, also known as the Chamber of Curiosities). Peter also contributed to education of architects, painters, artisans, and others. A.D. Menshikov, F.M. Apraksin, Y.V. Bruce had their own collections of art. Prince N.Y. Trubetskoy was one of the first St. Petersburg patrons of arts of the middle of the 18th century providing assistance to actor F.G. Volkov, poet A.D. Kantemir and others. Counts Sheremetev, the Shuvalovs, the Stroganovs, the Razumovskys, Princes Golitsyn, the Yusupovs and the Naryshkins were among the outstanding patrons of art of the 18th century. Representatives of these aristocratic clans had their own art galleries, theatres, orchestras etc., they supported artists, architects, and scientists (A.N. Voronikhin, F.I. Shubin, M.V. Lomonosov et. al. among them). They contributed to establishing scientific and cultural institutions. I.I. Shuvalov played a major role in setting up Moscow University and the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts. Well-educated aristocrats were patrons of art of the beginning of the 19th century, many of them were people of the arts (the Vielgorsky brothers, A.F. Lvov et. al.). M.I. Glinka, A.S. Dargomyzhsky, A.G. Rubinstein, P.I. Tchaikovsky, N.V. Gogol, D.V. Grigorovich, K.P. Bryullov and many others became famous in the salons of the Vielgorsky brothers, of Counts Laval, the Rumyantsevs and many others. Patrons of art-collectors organized private museums (the Russian Museum of P.P. Svinyin, Rumyantsev's Museum etc.). Many members of the Imperial Family were outstanding patrons of the arts: Empress Catherine II founded the Hermitage Museum housing the collections purchased by herself; Emperor Alexander III founded the Russian Museum housing the collections of the Imperial Family, etc. Members of the Imperial Family rendered assistance to figures of culture and science. The Russian Museum Society, the St. Petersburg Conservatoire etc. were founded with their personal participation. Grand Prince Nikolay Mikhailovich supported the activity of the Russian Historical Society (from 1909, he served as the Head of the Society), and financed various scientific publications. From the middle of the 19th century, patronage of art became popular among the merchants for whom charity and patronage of art became a tradition. The first merchants-patrons of the arts were the Demidovs: brothers P.A. Demidov and N.A. Demidov collected pieces of art, commissioned paintings, sculptures, supported figures of culture etc. P.N. Demidov established the Demidov Prize for Science, A.N. Demidov presented a part of his collections to the Hermitage. Merchant patron of the arts and collector V.F. Gromov became famous at the beginning of the 19th century (22 Fontanka Embankment, commemorative plaque). The merchant family of Eliseev were outstanding patrons of art: G.G. Eliseev in 1904 built a theatre in the building of the trade house at 56 Nevsky Avenue (today the Comedy Theatre), S.G. Eliseev presented a collection of works by French sculptor A. Roden and other works of art to the Hermitage. The patronage activities of the Barons Ginzburg became widely famous: G.E. Ginzburg in 1909-10 founded grants in the Conservatoire, he was one of the founders of St. Petersburg Archaeological Institute and a number of other institutions of culture; scholar of Eastern Studies D.G. Ginzburg financed the edition of the Jewish Encyclopaedia, etc. In the middle of the 19th century, A.P. Sapozhnikov (his collection of West-European painting is a part of the collection in the Hermitage) and V. A. Kokorev (his collection of paintings by Russian Masters was included in the collection of the Russian Museum) were the most famous among merchants collectors. Gold-miner merchants V.N. Latkin and M.K. Sidorov equipped scientific expeditions from their own means in the middle of the 19th century. Baron A.L. Stieglitz, a banker, in 1879 founded the College of Technical Drawing (13 Solyanoy Lane). Editor A.S. Suvorin in 1896 opened a private Theatre of Literary Artistic Society (65 Fontanka River Embankment, today Bolshoy Drama Theatre). Editors and book-dealers I.V. Slenin, A.F. Smirdin, I.T. Lisenkov and others supported literary men by buying rights for publication from them, overstating fee rates, and investing money in publication of journals and anthologies. Entrepreneurs running entertainment gardens were patrons of arts by the very kind of their activity: I.I. Izler (theatres in the garden of the Institution of Artificial Mineral Waters); P.V. Tumpakov (Operetta In The Summer Buff Garden-Theatre) et. al. Timber merchant M.P. Belyaev supported composers A.K. Glazunov, N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov, A.K. Lyadov et. al. (so called Belyaev's Circle), in 1884-85, he founded the Russian Symphonic Concerts, established the Glinka Prize, organized the Music Sheet Publishing House etc. Outstanding figure A.A. Polovtsov financed scientific projects, invested money in publishing the anthologies of the Russian Historical Society, the Russian Biographical Dictionary etc. Prince V.N. Tenishev opened the Commercial College in 1900 (35 Mokhovaya Street; see Tenishev College), together with his wife M.K. Tenisheva he offered parts of his art collections to St. Petersburg museums. After October 1917, patronage of the arts disappeared, it was recreated in the early 1990s in the shape of sponsorship events by banks, large industrial factories and companies rendering financial support for different cultural projects (festivals, competitions, exhibitions), financing construction of objects of culture, erection of monuments etc. The tradition of patronage of the arts practiced by private persons is being revived, including the setup of a private Lyceum and restoration of the Rotost House in Pavlovsk financed by businessman S.E. Guttsait. M.L. Rostropovich is financing the music school named after him (8 Izmaylovsky Avenue) etc.

References: Коллекционеры и меценаты в Санкт-Петербурге, 1703-1917: Тез. докл. конф. / Гос. Эрмитаж. СПб., 1995; Коллекционеры, меценаты, благотворители: (Россия, XVIII-ХХ вв.): [Биобиблиогр. слов.]. СПб., 1996; Филиппов А. В. Петербургское меценатство в XVIII - начале XX века // Петербургские чтения-96. СПб., 1996. С. 126-129.

Y. N. Kruzhnov.

Alexander III, Emperor
Apraksin Fedor Matveevich
Belyaev Mitrofan Petrovich
Bruce Yakov Villimovich (James Daniel)
Bryullov Karl Pavlovich
Catherine II, Empress
Dargomyzhsky Alexander Sergeevich
Demidov Akinfy Nikitich
Demidov Nikita Akinfievich
Demidov Pavel Nikolaevich
Demidov Prokopy Akinfievich
Eliseev Grigory Grigorievich
Eliseev Sergey Grigorievich
Ginzburg David Goratsievich
Glazunov Alexander Konstantinovich
Glinka Mikhail Ivanovich
Gogol Nikolay Vasilievich
Grigorovich Dmitry Vasilievich
Gromov Vasily Fedulovich
Gutzeit S.E.
Izler Ivan Ivanovich
Kantemir Antiokh Dmitrievich
Kokorev Vasily Alexandrovich
Latkin V.N.
Laval Alexandra Grigoryevna, Countess
Lisenkov Ivan Timofeevich
Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilievich
Lvov Alexey Fedorovich
Lyadov Anatoly Konstantinovich
Menshikov Alexander Danilovich, Gracious Prince
Nikolay Mikhailovich, Grand Prince
Peter I, Emperor
Polovtsov Alexander Alexandrovich
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay Andreevich
Rodin Auguste
Rostropovich Mstislav Leopoldovich
Rubinstein Anton Grigorievich
Sapozhnikov Alexander Petrovich
Shubin Fedot Ivanovich
Shuvalov Ivan Ivanovich, Count
Sidorov Mikhail Konstantinovich
Slenin Ivan Vasilievich
Smirdin Alexander Filippovich
Stieglitz Alexander Ludwigovich, Baron
Suvorin Alexey Sergeevich
Svinyin Pavel Petrovich
Tchaikovsky Peter Ilyich
Tenishev Vyacheslav Nikolaevich
Tenisheva Maria Klavdievna
the Demidovs
the Eliseevs
the Golitsyns
the Naryshkins
the Razumovskys
the Rumyantsevs
the Sheremetevs
the Shuvalovs
the Stroganovs
the Vielgorskys, Counts
the Yusupovs, Dukes
Trubetskoy Nikita Yurievich, Duke
Tumpakov P.V.
Volkov Fedor Grigorievich
Voronikhin Andrey Nikiforovich

Fontanka River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 22
Fontanka River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 65
Izmailovsky Avenue/Saint Petersburg, city, house 8
Mokhovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 35
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 56
Solyanoy Lane/Saint Petersburg, city, house 13

Филиппов А. В. Петербургское меценатство в XVIII - начале XX века // Петербургские чтения-96. СПб., 1996
Коллекционеры и меценаты в Санкт-Петербурге, 1703 - 1917: Тез. докл. конф. / Гос. Эрмитаж. СПб., 1995
Коллекционеры, меценаты, благотворители: (Россия, XVIII - XX вв.): [Биобиблиогр. слов.]. СПб., 1996
Карнович Е. П. Замечательные богатства частных лиц в России. М., 1992

The subject Index
Academy of Arts
Academy of Arts
Rumyantsev Museum
Russian Museum, State
Musical Society, The Russian
Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory
Russian Historical Society
Akimov Comedy Theatre
Archaeological Institute
Stieglitz Central Technical Drawing School
Crafts Academy
Tovstonogov Bolshoy Drama Theatre
Tenishev's School