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Entries / Musical Schools and Colleges (entry)

Musical Schools and Colleges (entry)

Categories / Science. Education/Educational Institutions

MUSICAL SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, classes, courses, educational institutions for those who want to study music professionally or obtain general training in music, catering to various social groups and interests. They emerged in the course of Peter the Great's reforms in the Army and the Navy as specialised establishments. In 1702-04 began the practice of teaching soldiers' children to play winds; the tradition lived on in the 19th and 20th centuries. On the initiative of N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov, music classes were established in 1873 in the School of the Naval Department; in 1900, the establishment was reorganized as the Music School of the Baltic Fleet (69 Bolshaya Morskaya Street), later graduating many famous musicians. The school for "minor choristers who have become voiceless" of the Court Capella (1740) was meant for the training of musicians of the Court Orchestra. In various educational establishments that were opened in St. Petersburg throughout the 18th century (Academy of Arts, Smolny Institute, Cadet Corps), students received excellent music education, but the title and status of a professional musician being inadmissible for a nobleman, music schools as such didn't exist until social priorities changed in the second half of the 19th century. Professional singers and musicians were trained at the Theatrical School, and the Instrument Performance Classes of the Capella, that periodically reappeared in 1810-11, 1834-37, and 1839-45. These classes functioned on a regular basis since 1858 at 20 Moika River Embankment. In 1883, Rimsky-Korsakov reformed the school, which for almost 40 years had provided St. Petersburg orchestras with a great number of first-class musicians. The situation with professional musical education changed when the Conservatory was opened (1862); after 10-15 years there appeared a generation of music pedagogues, who opened their own specialized schools (in voice, piano, violoncello, etc.) or comprehensive music schools that charged for tuition. One such school was the school of F.I. Russo, who was a member of the Philharmonic Society and the Circle of Music Lovers (1872-93, 55 Nevsky Prospect). In the late 19th century the most prominent schools of music included St. Petersburg Music School (1887, headed by pianist I.A. Borovka after 1917; located at 16 Nevsky Prospect, moved in 1910 to 13 Troitskaya Street), the Music School of pianist and methodologist S.F. Schlesinger (1888-1917; 66 Sadovaya Street) and the violoncello school of Y.S. Rozenthal, student of K.Y. Davydov (1890-1917; moved in 1910 to 11 Torgovaya Street). Musical Enlightenment Movement was represented by the Free Music School of M.A. Balakirev - G.Y. Lomakin (1862-1917), Free Musical Singing Classes of the Society for Public Sobriety (director - N. I. Privalov; 1902-17, moved in 1912 to the People's House on Petrogradskaya Side) and others. After October 1917, the system of professional musical education was gradually established, which existed through the early 1990s. The system consisted of three "tiers": paid music schools with 7 to 8 years of instruction, music colleges and the Conservatory. Besides, there existed schools, classes and circles in community clubs, youth centres and other cultural establishments. These establishments taught rudiments of music, elements of music theory and performance on various instruments. The choir accompaniment emphasis was also well developed. There were several music teaching colleges to train teachers of music for kindergartens and amateur music performance clubs. By 2003, there were some 45 music schools in St. Petersburg, providing primary professional education with the right to continue studies at St. Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov Musical College (1 Matveeva Lane) or Musorgsky Musical College (34 Mokhovaya Street), moving on further to the Conservatory or any other institution of higher education that had a Faculty of Music. Graduates of the specialised Lyceum of the Conservatory (1a Matveeva Lane) enjoyed the same rights. Among the currently existing music school Specialised Musical Classes of the Philharmonic Society (31 Leitenanta Shmidta Embankment), Lyakhovitskaya Musical School (32 Sadovaya Street) and Schola Cantorum of Old European music (Petrodvorets, 1 Volodi Dubinina Street) are a few to be mentioned.

References: Петровская И. Ф. Музыкальное образование и музыкальные общественные организации в Петербурге, 1801-1917 гг.: Энцикл. СПб., 1999.

A. L. Porfiryeva.

Balakirev Mily Alexeevich
Borovka I.A.
Davydov Karl Yulievich
Lomakin Gavriil Yakimovich (Ioakimovich)
Lyakhovitskaya Sofia Samoilovna
Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich
Privalov Nikolay Ivanovich
Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolay Andreevich
Rozenthal Ya.S.
Russo F.I.

Leitenanta Schmidta Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 31
Matveeva Lane/Saint Petersburg, city, house 1, litera л. А
Moika River Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 20
Mokhovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 34
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 16
Nevsky prospect/Saint Petersburg, city, house 55
Rubinsteina St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 13
Sadovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 32
Sadovaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 66
Soyuza Pechatnikov St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 11
Volodi Dubinina Street/Peterhoff, town, house 1

Петровская И. Ф. Музыкальное образование и музыкальные общественные организации в Петербурге, 1801-1917 гг.: Энцикл. СПб., 1999

The subject Index
Theatre College
Rimsky-Korsakov Conservatory
Philharmonic Society
Free Music School