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Entries / Industrial Architecture (entry)

Industrial Architecture (entry)


Categories / Architecture/Architectural Monuments/Public Buildings and Edifices

INDUSTRIAL ARCHITECTURE. Construction of buildings for industrial purposes originally determined the appearance of St. Petersburg and its outskirts. The industrial style buildings included the Admiralty Shipyard, Partikulyarnaya Shipyard, Kanatny (Rope) Yard, Liteiny (Casting) Yard, the Arsenal, Porokhovye (Gunpowder) Plants, Sestroretsk Plant, Izhorsky Plant, and other buildings. The surviving industrial facilities of the 18th and early 19th centuries include Novaya Gollandiya (New Holland) timber storage facilities, Tuchkov Buyan hemp storage facilities, the main building of the Imperial Porcelain Factory (152 Obukhovskoy Oborony Avenue; the 1780s, architect S. P. Bernikov); the New Arsenal at 3 Liteiny Avenue (1798-1810, architect F. I. Demertsov, rebuilt in 1864-70 by architect R. R. Henrichsen); the industrial building of the Alexandrovsky Iron Foundry (125 Obukhovskoy Oborony Avenue; 1825-26, architects V. P. Stasov, A. I. Postnikov, engineer М. Е. Clark); the building of the Russian Cotton Mill (223 Embankment of Obvodny Canal; 1835-38, architect N. Y. Anisimov); the first in Russia stone slipway of the New Admiralty (1837, architect P. P. Bazaine, engineers E. Ahnert, D. A. Lebedev; preserved after substantial reconstruction). The functional character of plant and factory buildings was regulated by the correspondence of the outer appearance to the inner layout depending on the needs of the industry. Industrial constructions used large-span metallic constructions and new building materials long before any of those were used in civil-purpose buildings (reinforced concrete has been used since the 1890s). Gas storage reservoirs at the plant of the Society for Illumination of the Capital (74 Obvodny Canal Embankment; 1858-60, architect R. B. Bernhard), the water tower of the Main Station of St. Petersburg city water system (56-58 Shpalernaya Street; 1859-63, architects I. A. Merz, E. G. Shubersky), buildings of Siegel mechanical plant (40-44 Dostoevskogo Street; 1888-90, architect I. S. Kitner) were built in the so-called brick style. Historic stylization motifs were used in the buildings of San Galli Mechanical Plant (60-62 Ligovsky Avenue; 1867-72, architects K. K. Rachau, A. A. Dokushevsky). Industrial buildings have been traditionally located near residential buildings of factory and plant workers (such was the case with Putilov Plant, Nobel Factory and other locations, see workers' towns). Large enterprises with towns forming around them included Triangle Brotherhood of the Russian-American Rubber Manufactory (134-140 Obvodny Canal Embankment; built in the 1860-70s by architects R. R. Henrichsen, E. G Yurgens; 1885-1900, architect R. A. Gedike), Nevskaya Cotton Mill (74-78 Sinopskaya Embankment; 1857, engineer L. V. Glama; 1895-98, architect L. L. Peterson), Nevka Filar Manufactory (3 Gelsingforskaya Street; 1849-56, architect A. N. Rokov; 1911, architect N. V. Vasilyev), Bavaria Brewery (9 Petrovsky Avenue; 1911-12, engineer L. A. Serk), and the Grain Elevator of Petrograd Storage Facilities (14 Obvodny Canal Embankment; 1911-12, engineer I. N. Kvil). The construction of an electric power station was started near Utkina Creek in 1914 (architect A. A. Ol), The design showed expressionistic tendencies of German industrial architecture. The building was completed in 1926; today it houses Red October heating plant. Buildings of step-down substations of Volkhov Hydroelectric Power Station, designed in monumental neoclassicism shapes, were built in the 1920s in various districts of Leningrad (architects O. R. Munz, I. S. Kitner, V. A. Shchuko). Red Banner stocking knitting factory (25 Krasnogo Kursanta Street) with an impressive-looking tower of the electric plant substation is an interesting example of industrial architecture (designed by German architect E. Mendelssohn, 1925; completed with certain modifications in 1929). Buildings of large mechanized bakeries on Barochnaya Street and on Novorossiiskaya Street (engineer G. P. Marsakov), the rope-making section of Red Nail-Maker plant on the 25th Line of Vasilievsky Island (1929-30, architect Y. G. Chernikhov) and other buildings were designed in constructivism style in the middle of the 1930s. Buildings of Kirov Meat-Packing Factory (13 Moskovskoe Highway; 1930-33, architects N. A. Trotsky, R. Y. Zelikman), of Kirov Flour Mill Company (45 Obukhovskoy Oborony Avenue; 1933-38, architect A. Y. Fleischmacher) are of significant architectural value. Registration of these buildings as monuments or architecture and their protection are affected by that these buildings are still being used.

References: Штиглиц М. С. Промышленная архитектура Петербурга. 2-е изд., испр. и доп. СПб., 1996; Ее же. Промышленная архитектура Петербурга в сфере "индустриальной археологии". СПб., 2003.

Y. M. Piryutko.

Persons
Ahnert Eduard Hristianovich
Anisimov Nikolay Yakovlevich
Bazen Peter Petrovich
Bernhard Rudolf Bogdanovich
Bernikov Sergey Petrovich
Chernikhov Yakov Georgievich
Clark Mathew (Matvey Egorovich) A3469
Demertsov Fedor Ivanovich
Dokushevsky Alexander Alexandrovich
Fleischmacher А.Y.
Gedike Robert Andreevich
Glama Leonard (Leonty) Vasilievich
Henrichsen Roman Romanovich
Kirov (real name Kostrikov) Sergey Mironovich
Kitner Ieronim Sevastianovich
Kvil Isidor Nikolaevich
Lebedev Dmitry Afanasievich
Marsakov G.P.
Mendelson Erich
Munz Oskar Rudolfovich
Ol Andrey Andreevich
Peterson Ludwig Ludwigovich
Postnikov Alexey Ivanovich
Rachau Karl Karlovich
Rokov Alexander Nikolaevich
Serk Lev Alexeevich
Shchuko Vladimir Alexeevich
Shubersky (Shubergsky) Ernest Gustavovich
Stasov Vasily Petrovich
Trotsky Noy Abramovich
Vasilyev Nikolay Vasilievich
Yurgens Emmanuel Gustavovich
Zelikman Yakov Izrailevich
Zelikman Yakov Izrailevich

Addresses
25th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city
Barochnaya St./Saint Petersburg, city
Dostoevskogo Street/Saint Petersburg, city, house 44
Dostoevskogo Street/Saint Petersburg, city, house 42
Dostoevskogo Street/Saint Petersburg, city, house 40
Gelsingforsskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 3
Krasnogo Kursanta St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 25
Ligovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 62
Ligovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 60
Liteiny Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 3
Moskovskoe Freeway/Saint Petersburg, city, house 13
Novorossiiskaya St./Saint Petersburg, city
Obukhovskoy Oborony Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 152
Obukhovskoy Oborony Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 45
Obukhovskoy Oborony Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 125
Obvodny Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 223
Obvodny Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 136
Obvodny Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 134
Obvodny Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 140
Obvodny Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 74
Obvodny Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 14
Obvodny Canal Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 138
Petrovsky Ave/Saint Petersburg, city, house 9
Shpalernaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 56
Shpalernaya St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 58
Sinopskaya Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 74
Sinopskaya Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 78
Sinopskaya Embankment/Saint Petersburg, city, house 76

Bibliographies
Штиглиц М. С. Промышленная архитектура Петербурга. 2-е изд., испр. и доп. СПб., 1996

The subject Index
Admiralty Shipyard
Foundry Yard
St. Petersburg Powder Mill
Sestroretsk Instrumentation Plant
Izhora Plants
Lomonosov Porcelain Factory
Admiralty Dockyards
Krasnoe Znamya, factory
Samson, Meat-Processing Plant