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Entries / Nicholas I, Emperor (1796-1855)

Nicholas I, Emperor (1796-1855)

Categories / Capital/Personalia
Categories / Tsarskoe Selo and town of Pushkin. The digital chronological reference book/Pushkin personality

NICHOLAS I (1796, Tsarskoe Selo - 1855, St. Petersburg), Emperor (from 1825). Emperor Pavel I and Empress Maria Fedorovna's third son. Married the Princess of Prussia (1817), who took the name of Alexandra Fedorovna. From 1796, he was Lieutenant General, and from 1817, Inspector General of Engineering. He commanded a guard brigade, and then, from 3 March 1825, commanded the second Guard Infantry Division. In 1823, he was named Crown Prince in declaration by Alexander I, who died before it was made public. After Alexander I's death, Nicholas I could not proclaim himself Emperor immediately on account of the ambiguity surrounding the interregnum. Members of secret societies used the opportunity to attempt an armed uprising on the day of Nicholas I's enthronement (see the Decembrists' Rebellion, 14 December, 1825), which was suppressed. Nicholas I personally commanded the army summoned against the insurgents, and later supervised the investigation and sentencing of the Decembrists. He took interest in engineering and architecture, ratifying plans for the city's development, fortresses, individual buildings, including those of St. Petersburg, and often adjusted them personally. St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg was completed during Nicholas I's reign, and the city was beautified by many large-scale buildings and structures. Within Russia, Nicholas I reinforced central state control, suppressed even the mildest uprising or oppositional attitude, and militarised all aspects of state life, creating a Secret Political Police (see the Third Section) and the Gendarmerie. Some of Nicholas I closest associates were Grand Prince Mikhail Pavlovich, the Emperor's brother, Count A.Kh. Benckendorff, Prince A.F. Orlov, Count M.M. Speransky, Count P.D. Kiselev, Count P.A. Kleinmichel. Before taking the crown he lived at Anichkov Palace, presented to him by Emperor Alexander I in 1817, and to which he returned after the fire at the Winter Palace in 1837. During summertime, he lived in the Alexandrovsky Palace at Tsarskoe Selo. He ordered the Alexandria Palace and Park, named after his wife, to be created on the territory of the former Menagerie (Peterhof), which was presented to him. After taking the crown, he lived at the Winter Palace. He also owned Gatchina. He was buried at the SS. Peter&Paul Cathedral. A monument to Nicholas I erected on St. Isaac's Square in 1859.

References: Шеманский А. В., Гейченко С. С. Кризис самодержавия: Петергофский Коттедж Николая I. 4-е изд. М.; Л., 1932; Мироненко С. В. Николай I // Романовы: Ист. портреты. М., 1997. Кн. 2. С. 331-403; Выскочков Л.В. Николай I. М., 2003.

Y. A. Kuzmin.

Alexander I, Emperor
Alexandra Fedorovna, Empress
Benckendorff Alexander Krristoforovich
Kiselev Pavel Dmitrievich
Kleinmichel Peter Andreevich
Maria Fedorovna, Empress
Mikhail Pavlovich, Grand Prince
Nicholas I, Emperor
Orlov Alexey Fedorovich, Duke
Paul (Pavel) I, Emperor
Speransky Mikhail Mikhailovich

St.Isaac's Square/Saint Petersburg, city

Мироненко С. В. Николай I // Романовы: Ист. портреты. М., 1997
Выскочков Л. В. Император Николай I: Человек и государь. СПб., 2001
Гейченко С. С., Шеманский А. В. Кризис самодержавия: Петергофский Коттедж Николая I. 4-е изд. М.; Л., 1932

The subject Index
Decembrist Revolt of 1825
St. Isaac's Cathedral
Third Division
Anichkov Palace
Winter Palace
Alexander Palace (Pushkin)
SS. Peter and Paul Cathedral