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Entries / Newspapers (entry)

Newspapers (entry)

Categories / Press. Mass Media/Periodical Press/Newspapers

NEWSPAPERS, russian gazeta from Italian gazzetta - small coin. The first periodical, that appeared in St. Petersburg was the Vedomosti (11 May 1711; previously it was published in Moscow; until 1719 in St. Petersburg and Moscow; from 1719 only in St. Petersburg; Peter the Great and his associates А. D. Menshikov, P.P. Shafirov et al. contributed to its publication); from 1728 it came out as Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti. In the 18th century there was not yet a strict division of periodicals into newspapers and magazines (journals). In the mid-18th century there appeared newspaper-type editions of four to eight pages (leaflets). The first private newspaper magazine edition was the Prazdnoe Vremya v Polzu Upotreblennoe,1759-60, later appeared the Podenshchina, 1769, I To I Se 1769, Smes, 1769, Vsyakaya Vsyachina 1769-70, Truten, 1769-70, Trudolyubivy Muravey (1771) and others. In the late 18th century the first newspaper-type editions emerged: Sankt-Peterburgskie Uchenye Vedomosti (1777), Sankt-Peterburgskie Vrachebnye Vedomosti (1793-94), Izvestia Volnogo Ekonomicheskogo Obshchestva (1788-89) and others. They were distributed through subscription, only a few copies were available in the retail sale. In the early 19th century official branch newspapers started to come out: Sankt-Peterburgskaya Gazeta (1825-1917; in French and German, as the organ of the Interior Ministry), Sankt-Peterburgskie Kommercheskie Vedomosti, from 1802, in Russian and German; from 1825 - Kommercheskaya Gazeta; from 1861 - Birzhevye Vedomosti; from 1879 - Molva, Severnaya Pochta 1809-19; an organ of the Interior Ministry Post Department; in 1809 the word gazeta (newspaper) first appeared in the sub-heading), Sankt-Peterburgskie Senatskie Vedomosti, 1811-1917, in Russian and German; an industry newspaper Severny Muravey 1830-33, Zemledelcheskaya Gazeta 1834-1917, Vedomosti Sankt-Peterburgskoy Gorodskoy Politsii 1839-1917; the name changed, see Police) and others. In 1815-20 circulated the first information publication on the current press - Dukh Zhurnalov. In the early 19th century the first private newspapers appeared: the Geniy Vremen and others. In 1813 Russky Invalid was the major newspaper (later circulated as a publication of the Military Department; was published until 1917). In the 1820-30s appeared first literary (private) newspapers: the Retsenzent (1821), A. A. Delvig's (1830-31) and A. A. Kraevsky's (1840-49) Literaturnaya Gazeta, Severny Merkury (1830-32), Khudozhestvennaya Gazeta (1836-41) etc. In the 1830s-40s branch newspapers started to circulate: the Drug Zdraviya (1833), Manufakturnye I Gornozavodskie Izvestiya (1837-57), Posrednik (1840-55), Zolotoe Runo (1857) and others. The Censorship Regulations of 1804 forbade private publications to touch upon political issues. F. V. Bulgarin's and N. I. Grech's Severnaya Pchela was an exception (from 1825 it came out as a journal, in 1831-68 - as a newspaper). In 1836 the prohibition on private periodicals was lifted, existing newspapers were bought out by publishers and came out under new names. With Emperor Nicholas I's death (1855) newspaper publishing saw a revival. The provisional press regulations of 1865 revoked preliminary censorship for metropolitan publications. By the late 19th century approximately 80 newspapers circulated in St. Petersburg (in Moscow - over 40). The circulation of some newspapers reached 100,000 copies. By the late 19th century a multivariate system of periodicals emerged: branch, political, literary and art, theological, informational, sports, comic (humour) periodicals and others. Beginning with the late 1850s Street editions like Bessonitsa, Yeralash, Mukha, Spletni and others became widespread, Gazeta Realnykh Znany (1858-60), Semeyny Listok (1859-63), Shakhmatny Listok (1859-63) and others were also in circulation. From 1865 the Sankt-Peterburgskie Yeparkhialnye Vedomosti came out. In the 1860s people's newspapers (cheap or free of charge), with a contribution from the church: Narodnaya Gazeta (1867), Mirskoe Slovo etc. In the early 1860s the monopoly of official newspapers to publish private advertisements was lifted; retail newspaper sales were livened up. The genre of newspaper report became particularly important. The second half of the 19th century witnessed the process of ideological differentiation: with the establishment of the democratically oriented Ocherki (1863), liberally spirited Golos, officious monarchic Grazhdanin and others. Novoe Vremya newspaper evolved from being an influential liberally orientated publication to an officious one. The number of official newspapers also saw an increase: the Pravitelstvenny vestnik (1869-1917), Sudebny vestnik (1866-78), Severnaya Pochta (1862-68), Izvestia Sankt-Peterburgskoy gorodskoy Dumy (1863-1917) and others. In the 1870s-80s underground newspapers of populist movements and groups circulated in St. Petersburg: Nachalo, Land and Freedom, Narodnaya Volya and others. After the Revolution of 1905-07 the legal party press emerged. The Cadet Party Newspaper Speech was among the most influential ones (1906-17). From 1889 until the early 1990s circulated the first museum newspaper in Russia - Panorama Ermitazha. Most of the newspapers at the turn of the 20th century were privately owned. Since the early 18th century newspapers in foreign languages were regularly published in St. Petersburg: St. Petersburger Zeitung (St. Petersburg Newspaper, 1711-1917), Rigasche Zeitung (The Riga Newspaper, 1729), Conservateur impartial (The Impartial Conservative, 1812-25), from 1825 - Journal de St.-Petersbourg (The St. Petersburg Journal) etc.; from the mid-19th century newspapers in English, French, German, Polish, Finnish, Estonian and other languages came out. A number of international newspapers, also daily, were brought in from abroad. After October 1917 all privately owned and official newspapers were suppressed, the publishing business was monopolised by the Soviet state. Newspapers were divided into central, republican, regional, city and others. From the mid 1930s so called large circulation newspapers, published by enterprises, academic institutions, branch newspapers [Rabochaya Gazeta, Leningradskaya militsia, Stroitelny rabochy and others gained popularity. The organ of the Leningrad Soviet Leningradskaya Pravda (since 1918) and Vecherny Leningrad (from October 1917; see Vecherny Peterburg), the youth magazine Smena (since 1919), children's Leninskie iskry (from 1924) were the major city newspapers. All major central newspapers had their news bureau in Leningrad (Pravda, Izvestia, Komsomolskaya Pravda and others). In 1990 circa 120 newspapers circulated in Leningrad. In the course of the reforms of the 1990s, and with the adoption of the Russian Federation Law on Mass media (1991), the number of newspapers significantly increased. In 1991-2002 new types of newspaper publications emerged: newspapers for various parties and public and political associations [Social Democrat, Uchreditelnoe Sobranie, Vestnik Khristianskoy Demokratii, Antisovetskaya Pravda and others], information publications [Aktsioner, Broker, Delovoe obozrenie, De-facto and others], newspapers of creative unions [Literator, Literaturny Vestnik and others], newspapers on the environment and nature (Znak Vodoleya etc.). Most of them ceased shortly after being established. Since 2003 some of Moscow's newspapers are published in St. Petersburg (Komsomolskaya Pravda, Izvestia, Argumenti I Fakti, Sport-Express and others), with special sections for local news, including information on St. Petersburg. Among the most popular are: Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti, Delovoy Peterburg, Nevskoe Vremya, Chas Pik, Iz ruk v ruki, Sport week-end, Nash Zenit (soccer team) and others. Since the mid-1990s free information and advertisements newspapers (Privet Peterburg!, Astok, Center-plus and others), district newspapers (Slavyanka, Vyborgakaya Storona and others), adds and information newspapers (Russian-English Plus. St. Petersburg, St.Peterburg Times in English and others) circulate. The number of newspapers in foreign languages is not large (Neva News, S.-Petersburger Zeitung and others). The number of large-scale publications decreased (among the existing ones are Nash put, of the St. Petersburg Institute of Railway Technologies, Gaudeamus of the St. Petersburg State University). In 2002 over 80 registered newspapers circulated in St. Petersburg, regularly appear occasional leaflets of different parties and associations, advertisement and agitprop publications.

References: Лисовский Н. М. Библиография русской периодической печати, 1703-1900. СПб., 1915; Есин Б. И. Русская газета и газетное дело в России: Задачи и теоретико-методол. принципы изучения. М., 1981; Газеты, газеты, газеты...: Справ. обо всех газетах России и др. стран СНГ: В 2 т. М., 1992.

Y. N. Kruzhnov.

Bulgarin Faddei Venediktovich
Delwig Anton Antonovich
Grech Nikolay Ivanovich
Kraevsky Andrey Alexandrovich
Menshikov Alexander Danilovich, Gracious Prince
Nicholas I, Emperor
Peter I, Emperor
Shafirov Peter Pavlovich, Baron

Лисовский Н. М. Библиография русской периодической печати, 1703-1900. СПб., 1915
Есин Б. И. Русская газета и газетное дело в России: Задачи и теорет.-методол. принципы изучения. М., 1981
Газеты, газеты, газеты...: Справ. обо всех газетах России и др. стран СНГ: В 2 т. М., 1992

The subject Index
Sankt Peterburgskie Vedomosti (St. Petersburg Gazette), newspaper
Prazdnoe Vremya v Polzu Upotreblennoe, Leisure Time Spent with Benefit, journal
Vsyakaya Vsyachina (All Sorts and Sundries), magazine
Truten (The Drone), journal
Birzhevye Vedomosti (The Stock-Exchange Gazette), 1880-1917
Russky Invalid (The Russian Invalid), newspaper
Literaturnaya gazeta (Literary Newspaper), 1830-1831, 1840-1849
Khudozhestvennaya gazeta (The Art Newspaper), journal
Severnaya Pchela (Northern Bee), journal, newspaper
Golos (The Voice), newspaper, 1863-1884
Grazhdanin (Citizen), journal newspaper, 1872-1914
Novoe vremya (The New Time), newspaper, 1868-1917
Rech (The Speech), newspaper
Leningradskaya Pravda (The Leningrad Truth), newspaper
Vecherny Peterburg (The Evening Petersburg), newspaper
Smena (The New Generation), newspaper
Smena (The New Generation), newspaper
Leninskie Iskry (Lenin's Sparks), newspaper