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Entries / Narodnaya Volya

Narodnaya Volya


Categories / Social Life/Political Parties and Organizations

NARODNAYA VOLYA (People's Will), the largest revolutionary public organization of the late 1870-80s. Originated in June 1879 as a result of the disunity among members of Zemlya i Volya, Narodnaya Volya was founded as an organization at a congress held illegally in Lesnoy, St. Petersburg in August 1879. The Executive Committee operated in St. Petersburg in 1879-81 as the governing body of the party. The members of the committee were A.D. Mikhaylov, A.A. Kvyatkovsky, A.I. Zhelyabov, S.L. Perovskaya, N.A. Morozov, M.F. Frolenko, L.A. Tikhomirov, V.N. Figner, A.V. Yakimova, et al. numbering about 30 people by the early 1881. Narodnaya Volya's charter and program were drawn up at the meetings of the Executive Committee in Leshtukov Lane (today, 15 Dzhambula Lane) in autumn 1879. The Executive Committee launched a campaign among the students from the late 1879. Zhelyabov and I. P. Kakovsky drew up The Program of Workers, Members of Narodnaya Volya that was approved in 1880. Numerous circles were organised and Rabochaya Gazeta (The Workers' Gazette) was printed illegally in Troitsky Lane (today, 25 Rubinsteina Street) in the same year. Members of the Executive Committee carried on revolutionary propaganda among officers of St. Petersburg and Kronstadt and the students of military schools from the late 1879. The military organization of Narodnaya Volya was founded in the late 1880-early 1881 with N.E. Sukhanov at the head. The Central Circle of the organization held its meetings at Sukhanov's house in Nikolaevskaya Street (today, 11 Marata Street). There were a number of illegal printing offices in St. Petersburg where the newspaper Narodnaya Volya was printed as a party organ. The organization enjoyed the support of many prominent scientists, lawyers, and literati. The Executive Committee maintained close contact with publicists N.K. Mikhaylovsky, N.V. Shelgunov, S.N. Krivenko, and others. Members of Narodnaya Volya blaming Emperor Alexander II for the poor life people lived and the severe punishment administered to revolutionists in 1870s, the Executive Committee passed a capital sentence to the emperor as early as in August 1879. While Narodnaya Volya numbered several hundred members, several dozens of them were engaged in preparation of assassinations. Dynamite workshops were organized in St. Petersburg, one of them at 24 11th Line of Vasilievsky Island (commemorative plaque), with N.I. Kibalchich and S.G. Shiryaev at the head. S.N. Khalturin, a member of Narodnaya Volya, set off an explosion in the Winter Palace on February 5, 1880. In the summer 1880, members of Narodnaya Volya failed an attempt at the life of Emperor Alexander II on Kamenny Bridge over the Ekaterininsky Canal. Finally, Emperor Alexander II was wounded and killed with a bomb thrown by I.I. Grinevitsky at the Ekaterininsky Canal on 1 March 1881 (see The First of March, 1881). Mass arrests conducted a day before and after March 1 rendered the organization lifeless, the former Executive Committee no longer functioned. Difficulties among its members brought to a split of Narodnaya Volya with the Narodnaya Volya Youth Party organized after the split. G. A. Lopatina and N. M. Salova failed their attempts to revive the united Narodnaya Volya and were arrested in October 1884. Separate circles and groups of Narodnaya Volya carried on their activities in St. Petersburg in 1880-90s including the Terrorist Group of Narodnaya Volya, the Group of Members of Narodnaya Volya, etc. Some members of Narodnaya Volya sided with Social Democrats in 1890s, while other members joined the Party of Socialist Revolutionaries in the early 20th century.

Reference: Волк С. С. Народная воля, 1879-1882. М.; Л., 1966; Троицкий Н. А. "Народная воля" перед царским судом (1880-1894). 2-е изд., испр. и доп. Саратов, 1983; Барабанова А. И., Ямщикова Е. А. Народовольцы в Петербурге. Л., 1984; От народничества - к марксизму: Воспоминания участников рев. движения в Петербурге (1883-1894 гг.). Л., 1987; "Народная воля" и "Черный передел": Воспоминания участников рев. движения в петербурге в 1878-1882 гг. Л., 1989.

Z. P. Solovyeva.

Persons
Alexander II, Emperor
Figner Vera Nikolaevna
Frolenko Mikhail Fedorovich
Grinevitsky Ignaty Ioakhimovich
Kakovsky Ivan Pavlovich
Khalturin Stepan Nikolaevich
Kibalchich Nikolay Ivanovich
Krivenko Sergey Nikolayevich
Kvyatkovsky Alexander Alexandrovich
Lopatin German Alexandrovich
Mikhaylov Alexander Dmitrievich
Mikhaylovsky Nikolay Konstantinovich
Morozov Nikolay Alexandrovich
Perovskaya Sofia Lvovna
Salova Neonila Mikhailovna
Shelgunov Nikolay Vasilievich
Shiryaev Stepan Grigorievich
Sukhanov Nikolay Evgenievich
Tikhomirov Lev Alexandrovich
Yakimova Anna Vasilievna
Zhelyabov Andrey Ivanovich

Addresses
11th Line of Vasilievsky Island/Saint Petersburg, city, house 24
Dzhambula Lane/Saint Petersburg, city, house 15
Marata St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 11
Rubinsteina St./Saint Petersburg, city, house 25

Bibliographies
Волк С. С. Народная воля, 1879-1882. М.; Л., 1966
Троицкий Н. А. "Народная воля" перед царским судом (1880-1894). 2-е изд., испр. и доп. Саратов, 1983
Барабанова А. И., Ямщикова Е. А. Народовольцы в Петербурге. Л., 1984
От народничества - к марксизму: Воспоминания участников рев. движения в Петербурге (1883-1894 гг.). Л., 1987
"Народная воля" и "Черный передел": Воспоминания участников рев. движения в петербурге в 1878-1882 гг. Л., 1989

The subject Index
Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) of 1870s
First of March, 1881

Chronograph
1879
1880
1880


Alexander II , Emperor (1818-1881)

ALEXANDER II (1818-1881, St. Petersburg), Emperor (since 1855). He was a son of Emperor Nicholas I and Empress Alexandra Fedorovna. Tsarevitch (from 1831), General of Infantry (1847), Honorary Member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1826)

Baranov N.M., Chief of City Administration 1881

BARANOV Nikolay Mikhailovich (1837-1901), statesman, Lieutenant General (1893). Baranov graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps in St. Petersburg (1856). From 1856, he served in the Navy, in 1866-77, he headed the Naval Museum

Cherny Peredel, revolutionary organizations

CHERNY PEREDEL (Black Repartition), a revolutionary populist organization that came into existence in the summer of 1879 after the split of Zemlya i Volya. Its founders were G.V. Plekhanov, V.I. Zasulich, L.G. Deutsch, P.B. Axelrod, V.N. Ignatov, O

Figner V.N. (1852-1942), revolutionary

FIGNER Vera Nikolaevna (1852-1942), prominent figure of the revolutionary movement of the 1870-80s, author of memoirs. The sister of singer N.N. Figner. Studied at the Kazan Institute for Noble Girls, studied medicine in Switzerland

First of March 1887

FIRST OF MARCH 1887 (The Second First of March, by analogy with the First of March 1881), the day of the attempt on the life of the Emperor Alexander III. It was prepared by members of the Terrorist Faction of People's Will, created in 1886 by A.I

First of March, 1881

FIRST OF MARCH 1881, the day Emperor Alexander II was assassinated, prepared and accomplished by the party People's Will. The plan included exploding the Emperor's carriage on its way to the Mikhailovsky Manege

Griboyedova Canal

GRIBOYEDOVA CANAL (the Ekaterininsky Canal in 1767-1923) starts from the Moika River at the Field of Mars and flows into the Fontanka River at Malo-Kalinkin Bridge. It is 5 km long and 32 meters wide with water flow of 3.1 - 3.4 m3

Hessen I. V. (1865/66-1943), public figure

HESSEN Iosif Vladimirovich (1865-1943), lawyer, public and political figure. In 1885 he enrolled at the Faculty of Law of the Petersburg University, and was arrested the same year for ties with People's Liberty and exiled to Ust-Sysolsk

Holy Resurrection Cathedral, (Spas-na-Krovi)

HOLY RESURRECTION CATHEDRAL, (SPAS-NA-KROVI "Church of Our Saviour on the Blood", located at 2a Griboedova Canal Embankment, a church constructed in 1883-1907 (architects A. A

House of Preliminary Detention, prison

HOUSE OF PRELIMINARY DETENTION (25 Shpalernaya Street), the first remand prison in Russia. It was built in 1871-75 (architect K.Y. Maevsky) who took American system as an example: the doors of cells overlooked stepped iron passages; inside the house

Illegal Printing Offices

ILLEGAL PRINTING OFFICES opened in St. Petersburg by revolutionary organizations to print illegal press such as periodicals, brochures, and leaflets. A printing office would be organized in a rented apartment

Kibalchich N.I. (1853-1881), revolutionary, inventor

KIBALCHICH Nikolay Ivanovich (1853-1881, St. Petersburg), participant of the revolutionary movement, inventor. On graduating from Novgorod-Seversk Gymnasium (1871), entered the Institute of Communications Engineers

Lopatin G.A. (1845-1918), revolutionary

LOPATIN German Alexandrovich (1845-1918, П.), revolutionary and narodnik (Russian populist). He graduated from the Department of Physics and Mathematics of St. Petersburg University (1866), in 1867, defended his Ph.D

Loris-Melikov M.T. (1825-1888), statesman

LORIS-MELIKOV Mikhail Tarielovich (1824-1888), Count (1878), statesman and military officer, Cavalry General (1875), Adjutant General (1865). After graduating from the Guards Schools for Ensigns and Cavalry Cadets in St

Morozov N.A. (1854-1946), revolutionary, chemist, astronomer

MOROZOV Nikolay Alexandrovich (1854-1946), revolutionary-narodnik, writer, scientist, author of memoirs, honorary member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1932)

Nevsky Prospect

NEVSKY PROSPECT known as Bolshaya Pershpektivnaya Road or Bolshaya Pershpektiva until 1738, Nevskaya Prospektivaya Street or Nevskaya Perspektiva in 1738-1780s, and 25 October Avenue in 1918-44 so named in memory of the October Revolution of 1917

Northern Union of Russian Workers

NORTHERN UNION OF RUSSIAN WORKERS, the first underground revolutionary organization of workers in St. Petersburg. It was founded in 1876 with D.N. Smirnov, A.E. Gorodnichy, V.I. Savelyev, and S.I. Volkov at the head

Perovskaya S.L., (1853-1881), revolutionary

PEROVSKAYA Sofia Lvovna (1853, St. Petersburg - 1881), Revolutionary Populist. From the aristocratic noble family; father, Lev Nikolaevich Perovsky (1816-1890), was Petersburg Civil Governor in 1865-66

Political Parties (entry)

POLITICAL PARTIES, groups of people united by political opinions and goals fixed in party documents; possessing certain membership requirements, internal structure and types of activities stated in the regulations; relying on a certain social base

Political Trials of 1860-80s

POLITICAL TRIALS of 1860-80s, state trials that played the key role in the autocratic penal policy after the judicial reform of 1864. Most cases were tried in the Special Office of the Ruling Senate, doors closed and publicity confined

Sadovaya Street, Malaya

SADOVAYA STREET, MALAYA, between Italyanskaya Street and Nevsky Prospect (the shortest street of St. Petersburg, its length is 179 metres). It was built in the second half of the 18th century

Tkachev P.N. (1844-1885/86), revolutionary, publisist

TKACHEV Peter Nikitich (1844-1885), participant of the revolutionary movement, literary critic, publicist, one of the ideologists of revolutionary Narodnichestvo (Populism). From 1851 lived with his family in St. Petersburg

Trubetskoy Bastion

TRUBETSKOY BASTION, one of 6 bastions of Peter and Paul Fortress, situated in its south-western part. The bastion was built in 1703, of earth and wood under the supervision of prince Y.Y

Voznesensky Avenue

VOZNESENSKY AVENUE, translated as Ascension Avenue, between Admiralteisky Avenue and Fontanka River Embankment. It was laid in the early 18th century. It runs towards the tower of the Main Admiralty and crosses St Isaac’s Square

Yakubovich P.F. (1860-1911), poet, revolutionary

YAKUBOVICH Peter Filippovich (1860-1911, St. Petersburg), poet, writer, participant of People"s Will movement of the 1880s. He graduated from Faculty of History and Philology of Petersburg University (1882)

Zemlya i Volya (Land and Liberty) of 1870s

ZEMLYA I VOLYA (Land and Liberty) of 1870s, an illegal revolutionary organization that was founded in St. Petersburg in 1876 as the Northern Revolutionary Group of Narodniks (Populists) or the Society of Narodniks renamed in 1878

Zhelyabov A. I. (1851-1881), revolutionary

ZHELYABOV Andrey Ivanovich (1851-1881, St. Petersburg), a revolutionary Narodnik (Populist). He was born in a family of serfs. When studying at Novorossiysky University, Odessa, in 1869-71, he was expelled after participating in student unrest